Anthropometric characteristics of young Italian tennis players
Purpose. Aim of our study is to observe specific body differences induced by training in young agonist tennis players at pre-pubertal and pubertal age, using anthropometry. Method. We analyzed 101 tennis players (27 females and 74 males) coming from South Italy, aged 8-14, which played tennis from at least 1 year. Anthropometric measurements like wrist, mid-thigh, mid-arm circumferences and arms length were compared between dominant and not dominant side of the body. Results. The mean Z-score for females was 0.9627, corresponding to the 83.22th centile of Italian growth chart, the mean Z-score for males was 1.0157, corresponding to 84.51th centile of Italian growth chart. For weight the mean Z-score for females was 0.2394 (59.46th centile) and the mean Z-score for males was 0.4032 (65.66th centile). The mean Z-score for females Body Mass Index was -0.1451 (44.23th centile), instead the mean Z-score for males was -0.0768 (46.94th centile). The Wilcoxon test reported a statistically significant difference between dominant and not dominant wrist circumferences regardless of sex (p-value=1.87e-10). Conclusions. Our study revealed that playing tennis starting from childhood may be useful for a regular growth. Analysis of wrist circumference and height may confirm the osteogenic potential of the sport.
American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 8th ed. Philadelphia (PA): Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. p. 366.
Cacciari, E., Milani, S., Balsamo, A., Spada, E., Bona, G., Cavallo, L., Cerutti, F., Gargantini, L., Greggio, N., Tonini, G., & Cicognani, A. (2006). Italian cross-sectional growth charts for height, weight and BMI (2 to 20 yr). J Endocrinol Invest., 29 (7), 581-93.
Calbet, J.A., Moysi, J.S., Dorado, C., & Rodríguez, L.P. (1998). Bone mineral content and density in professional tennis players. Calcif Tissue Int., 62(6), 491-6.
Cameron, N. (1993). Assessment of growth and maturation during adolescence. Horm Res., 39 Suppl 3, 9-17.
Capizzi, M., Leto, G., Petrone, A. et al. (2011). Wrist circumference is a clinical marker of insulin resistance in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Circulation., 26;123(16), 757-62.
Fernandez-Fernandez, J., Sanz-Rivas, D., Sanchez-Muñoz, C. et al. (2009). A comparison of the activity profile and physiological demands between advanced and recreational veteran tennis players. J Strength Cond Res., 23(2), 604-10.
Garber, C. E., Blissmer, et al. (2011). Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory, Musculoskeletal, and Neuromotor Fitness in Apparently Healthy Adults: Guidance for Prescribing Exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(7), 1334-1359.
Kannus, P., Haapasalo, H., Sankelo, M. et al. (1995). Effect of starting age of physical activity on bone mass in the dominant arm of tennis and squash players. Ann Intern Med., 23(1), 27-31.
Kontulainen, S., Sievänen, H., Kannus, P. et al. (2002). Effect of long-term impact-loading on mass, size, and estimated strength of humerus and radius of female racquet-sports players: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography study between young and old starters and controls. J Bone Miner Res., 17(12), 2281-9.
Loffing, F., Sölter, F., Hagemann, N. (2014). Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences. PLoS One., 9(8), e105800.
Nelson, M.E., Rejeski, W.J., Blair, S.N. et al. (2007). Physical activity and public health in older adults. Circulation, 116(9), 1094-1105.
Oja, P., Kelly, P., Pedisic, Z. et al. (2016). Association of specific types of sports and exercise with all-cause and cardiovascular-disease mortality: a cohort study of 80 206 British adults. British Journal of Sport Medicine, 28. pii: bjsports-2016-096822. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096822.
Olmedillas, H., Sanchis-Moysi, J., Fuentes, T. et al. (2010). Muscle hypertrophy and increased expression of leptin receptors in the musculus triceps brachii of the dominant arm in professional tennis players. Eur J Appl Physiol., 108(4), 749-58.
Reid, M., Schneiker, K. (2008). Strength and conditioning in tennis: current research and practice. J Sci Med Sport., 11(3), 248-56. Epub 2007 Jun 26.
Sanchis-Moysi, J., Idoate, F., Dorado, C. et al. (2010). Large asymmetric hypertrophy of rectus abdominis muscle in professional tennis players. PLoS One, 5(12), e15858.
Sanchis-Moysi, J., Idoate, F., Álamo-Arce, D. et al. (2016). The core musculature in male prepubescent tennis players and untrained counterparts: a volumetric MRI study. J Sports Sci., 30, 1-7.
Son, S., Han, K., So, W.Y. (2016). The relationships of waist and mid-thigh circumference with performance of college golfers. J. Phys. Ther. Sci., 28(3), 718-21.
Sparling, P.B., Howard, B.J., Dunstan, D.W. et al. (2015). Recommendations for physical activity in older adults. BMJ, 350, 1-5.