Breath-hold diving performance factors

Francisco de Asís Fernández, José María González-Ravé, Daniel Juárez

Abstract

In this study we analyzed the relation of several predictors with Apnea Indoor. 56 divers participated in this observational research. Were measured the individual performance in Apnea Indoor, hemoglobine, blood volume, VO2max, body composition, resting metabolic rate and the heart rate and oxygen saturation during a maximal static apnea. We noted a correlation between vital capacity (r = 0.539; p≤0.05), blood volume (r = 0.466; p ≤0.05), body lean percentage (r = 0.406; p ≤0.05) the minimal heart rate (r = -0.624; p ≤0.05) and the lowest oxygen saturation 0.485; p ≤0.05) obtained during static apnea with Apnea Indoor performance.


Keywords

Apnea indoor; Exercise; Training; Testing

References

Andersson, J. (2009). Arterial oxygen saturation and diving response during dynamic apneas in breath-hold divers. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Spor., 1, 87-91. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2008.00777.x

Bassett, D.R., & Howley, E.T. (2000). Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc., 32, 70-84. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200001000-00012

Breskovic, T. (2011). Cardiovascular changes during underwater static and dynamic breath-hold dives in trained divers. J. Appl. Physiol., 3, 673-678. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00209.2011

Cortesi, M., et al. (2014). Passive Drag Reduction Using Full-Body Swimsuits: The Role of Body Position. J. Strength. Cond. Res., 11, 3164-3171. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000508

Costa, D., Gales, N., & Crocker, D. (1998). Blood Volume and Diving Ability of the New Zealand Sea Lion, Phocarctoshookeri. Physiological Zoology, 71, 208-213. https://doi.org/10.1086/515911

De Bruijn, R. (2004). Hemoglobin levels in elite divers, elite skiers and untrained humans. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Underwater and Baromedical Society. Corsica, France.

Hawley, J.A. (1992). Muscle power predicts freestyle swimming performance. Br. J. Sports. Med., 26, 151-155. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.26.3.151

Holmér, I. (1972). Oxygen uptake during swimming in man. J. Appl. Physiol., 33, 502-509. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1972.33.4.502

Feldschuh, J., Enson, Y. (1977). Prediction of the normal blood volume. Relation of blood volume to body habitus. Circulation, 56, 605-12. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.56.4.605

Fernández, F.A. (2015). Predicting static and dynamic apnea performance in elite divers using a 2-minute static apnea test. In: Proceedings of the 41st Annual Scientific Meeting of the European Underwater and Baromedical Society. Amsterdam.

Fernández, F.A. (2015). Periodization of apnea training. Doctoral thesis, University of Castilla-la Mancha.

Harriss, D., Atkinson, G. (2011). Update - Ethical standards in sport and exercise science research. Int. J. Sports. Med., 32, 819-21. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1287829

Lindholm, P. (2007). Effects of fasting and carbohydrate consumption on voluntary resting apnea duration. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 100(4), 417-25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0442-7

Möller, P., & Sylvén, C. (1981). Myoglobin in human skeletal muscle. Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest., 41, 479-482. https://doi.org/10.3109/00365518109090486

Nadler, S., Hidalgo, J., & Bloch, T. (1962). Prediction of blood volume in normal human adults. Surgery, 51, 224.

Olsen, C.R., Fanestil, D.D., & Scholander, P.F. (1962). Some effects of apneic underwater diving on blood gases, lactate, and pressure in man. J. Appl. Physiol., 17, 938-942. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1962.17.6.938

Perez, M.E. (1998). Control de la respiración. Manual de Neumología y Cirugía Torácica. IL. EditoresMédicos.

Prommer, N. (2007). Total haemoglobin mass and spleen contraction: a study on competitive apnea divers, non-diving athletes and untrained control subjects. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 6, 753-759. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0556-y

Rahn, H. (1964). Oxygen stores of man. IL: Dickens & Neil. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4831-9819-4.50042-X

Schagatay, E. (2009). Predicting performance in competitive apnoea diving. Part I: static apnoea. Diving Hyperb. Med., 2, 88-99.

Schagatay, E. (2010). Predicting performance in competitive apnea diving, part II: dynamic apnoea. Diving Hyperb. Med., 1, 11-22.

Telles, S., Reddy, S., & Nagendra, H.R. (2000). Oxygen Consumption and Respiration Following Two Yoga Relaxation Techniques. Appl. Psychophysiol. Biofeedback, 25, 221-227. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1026454804927

Tikuisis, P. (2000). Comparison of thermoregulatory responses between men and women immersed in cold water. J. Appl. Physiol., 89, 1403-1411. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2000.89.4.1403

Tomlin, D.L., & Wenger, H.A. (2001). The relationship between aerobic fitness and recovery from high intensity intermittent exercise. Sports Med., 31, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200131010-00001

Zampagni, M.L. (2008). Anthropometric and Strength Variables to Predict Freestyle Performance Times in Elite Master Swimmers. J. Strength Cond. Res., 22, 1298-1307. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816a597b




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2017.123.03