Assessing strength and power in resistance training

Fernando Naclerio Ayllón, Alfonso Jiménez, Brent A. Alvar, Mark D. Peterson

Abstract

Maximal Dynamic Strength is usually assessed either by the one repetition maximum test (1-RM) or by a repetition maximum test with submaximal loads, which requires the application of a formula to estimate the value of 1-RM. This value is needed to establish the objective of resistance training: such as maximum strength, endurance strength, and/or explosive strength. However, both 1-RM and submaximal tests are unable to highlight the changes produced on power and velocity. This manuscript summarizes and reviews several common strength testing protocols and proposes a novel approach that may offer greater insight to hierarchical muscle functionality.


Keywords

1-RM test; Progressive load; Velocity; Power

References

Armtrong D. Power Training The key to Athletics Success. NSCA Journal. 1993; 15(6):7-10.

Baker D., Nance S., Moore M. The load that maximizes the averages mechanical power Output during Explosive Bench press throws in highly trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2001; 15(1):20-4.

Baker D., Nance S., Moore M. The load that maximizes the averages mechanical power Output during jump squat in power trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2001; 15(1):92-7.

Baker D., Newton R.U. Methods to increase the effectiveness of maximal power training for the upper body. J Strength Cond Res. 2005; 27(6):24-32. https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200512000-00004

Baker D. A series of studies on the training of High Intensity Muscle Power in Rugby League Football Player. J Strength Cond Res. 2001; 15(2):198-209.

Branderburg J.P. The acute effects of prior dynamic resistance exercise using different loads on subsequent upper-body explosive performance in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2005; 19(2):427-32.

Brown L.E, Weir J.P. ASEP procedures recommendation I: Accurate assessment of muscular strength. JEPonline. 2001; 4(3):1-21.

Chandler J.T. Letters to the Editor, by Naclerio A. F. Strength Cond J. 2001; 23(1): 7-9. https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200102000-00001

Cronin J., Sleivert G. Challenges in understanding the influence of maximal power training on improving athletic performance. Sports Med. 2005; 35(3):213-34. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535030-00003

Derenne C., Ho K.W., Murphy J.C. Effects of general, special and specific resistance training on throwing velocity in baseball: a brief review. J Strength Cond Res. 2001; 15(1):148-56. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200102000-00026

Dugan E.L., Doyle T.L.A., Humphries B., Hasson C.J., Newton R.U. Determining the optimal load for jump squat: A review of methods and calculations. J Strength and Cond Res. 2004; 18(3):668-74. https://doi.org/10.1519/1533-4287(2004)18<668:DTOLFJ>2.0.CO;2

Enoka R.M. Neuromechanics of Human Movement. 3th, ed.: Human Kinetics; 2002.

Faigembaum A.D., Milliken L.A., Westcott W.L. Maximal strength testing in healthy children. J Strength Cond Res. 2003; 17(1): 162-6.

Fleck S.J., Kraemer W.J. Designing Resistance Training Programs. 2º ed. Champaing IL: Human Kinetics; 1997.

Hori N., Newton R.U., Nosaka K., Mcguigan R.M. Comparison of different methods of determining power output in weightlifting exercises. Strength Cond J. 2006; 28(2): 34-40. https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200604000-00006

Hori N., Newton R.U., Nosaka K. Weightlifting Exercise Enhance Athletic Performance That Requires High-Load Speed. Strength Cond J. 2005; 27(4):50-5. https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200508000-00008

Izquierdo M., Häkkinen K., González-Badillo J.J., Ibáñez J., Gorostiaga E.M. Effects of long-Term training specify on maximal strength and power of the upper and lower extremities in athletes from different sports. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002; 87:264-71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0628-y

Kawamori N., Haff G.G. The optimal training load for the development of muscular power. J Strength Cond Res. 2004; 18(3):675-84.

Kawamori N., Newton R.U. Velocity specificity of resistance training: actual movement velocity versus intention to move explosively. Strength Cond J. 2006; 28(2):86-91. https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200604000-00015

Knuttgen H.G., Kraemer W.J. Terminology and measurement in exercise performance. J Appl Sports Sci Res. 1987; 1(1):1-10.

Knuttgen H.G, Pv K. Basic consideration for exercise, Chapter 1. In: Komi PV, editor. Strength and power in sport. Second edition. Ed: Blackwell Publishing; 2003. p. 3-7.

Knutzen K.M., Brilla L.R., Caine D. Validity of 1 MR prediction equation for older Adults. J Strength Cond Res. 1999; 13(3):242-6.

Kraemer J.W., Fleck S.J. Optimizing strength training. Designing nonlinear periodization workouts. Human Kinetics; 2007.

Kravitz L., Akalan C., Nowicki K., Kinzey J. Prediction of 1 repetition maximum in hig-school power lifters. J Strength Cond Res. 2003; 17(1):167-72.

Lesuer D.A., Mccormick J.H., Mayhew J.L., Wasserstein R.L., Arnold D.M. The Accuracy of seven predictions for estimating 1-RM performance in the bench press, squat, and deadlift. J Strength Cond Res. 1997; 11(4):211-3.

Mayhew J.L., Ball T.E., Arnold M.D., Bowen J. Relative muscular endurance performance as a predictor of bench press strength in college men and woman. J Appl Sport Sci Res. 1992; 6(4):200-6.

Mayhew J.L., Mayhew D.L., Ware J.S., Bowen J.C. Accuracy of various repetitions Maximum Weight for predicting Bench Press. Med Sci sports Exerc. 2000; 32(Supplement to 5):1782 S352.

Morales J., Sobonya S. Use of submaximal repetition tests for predicting 1-RM strength in class athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 1996; 10(3):186-9.

Naclerio F., Forte D., Colado J.C., Benavent J.Y., Chulvi I. Analysis of the force and power produced in the squat over 52 weeks training. Med Sci Sport Exc. 2007; 39(5 Supplement,): S293. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000274135.36550.d6

Nigg B.M. Forces acting on and in the human body. Chapter 14. In: Nigg B.M. MBR, and Mester J., editors. Biomechanics and Biology of Movements. Champaing Il.: Human Kinetics; 2000. p. 253-68.

Reynolds J.M., Gordon T.J., Robergs R.A. Prediction of one repetition maximum strength from multiple repetition maximum testing and anthropometry. J Strength Cond Res. 2006; 20(3):584-92.

Rodríguez M.I, Chagas Gomes P.S. Muscular strength and endurance test: reliability and prediction of one maximum- Review and new evidences. Rev Brass Med Esporte. 2003; 9(5):336-46.

Sale G.D. Testing Strength and Power. Chapter 3. In: MacDougal JC, Wenger HA, Green HJ, editors. Physiological testing of high performance athlete. 2º ed. Champaing IL: Human Kinetics, 1991. p. 21-106.

Siff M.C. Supertraining. 5º ed. Denver USA: Supertraining institute; 2004.

Simpson S.R., Rozenek R., Garhammer J., Lacourse M., Storer T. Comparison of one repetition maximum between free weight and universal machine exercises. J Strength and Cond Res. 1997; 11(2):103-6.

Ware J.S., Clemens C.T., Mayehew J.L., Johnston T.J. Muscular endurance repetition to predict bench press and squat in college football player. J Strength Cond Res. 1995; 9(2): 99-103.

Wathen D., Roll F. Training methods and modes. Chapter 22. In: Baechle TR., editor. Essential of Strength Training and Conditioning (NSCA). Champaing IL: Human Kinetics; 1994. p. 403-15.

Watkins J. Structure and function of the musculoskeletal system. Champaing IL: Human Kinetics; 1999.

Wood T.M., Maddalozzo G.F., Harte R.A. Accuracy of seven equations for predicting 1-RM performance of apparently healthy, sedentary older adults. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. 2002; 6(2):67-94. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327841MPEE0602_1




DOI: https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2009.42.04