Biomechanical factors to be taken into account to prevent injuries and improve sporting performance on artificial turf
This article reviews existing knowledge concerning the epidemiology, instruments and regulatory criteria currently used to evaluate artificial turf soccer pitches. Recent years have seen tremendous growth in the use of artificial turf as a playing surface for sports (rugby, soccer, American football...) and the problems traditionally associated with artificial turf and its relationship with a higher percentage of injuries seem to be disappearing. The contribution of biomechanics to the development of new techniques and instruments for analysing the properties and characteristics of grass pitches has contributed towards close collaboration with the regulatory bodies of different sporting organisations to define standards and criteria that guarantee not only the safety of the sportsmen and women, but also ensure performance and entertainment. Absorption of impacts, friction and traction, abrasion and factors associated with the mobile element and its interaction with artificial turf are the properties evaluated using a wide range of methodologies and instruments. In this sense, instruments such as the "Artificial Athlete" and the "Stuttgart Skiddometer" have helped different standards (DIN, BSI, AENOR, AFNOR, FIFA...amongst others) to define criteria for the homologation of a certain artificial turf surfaces.
Andréasson G., Lindenberger U., Renström P., Peterson L. Torque developed at simulated sliding between sport shoes and an artificial turf. Am J Sports Med, 1986; 14(3):225-230. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354658601400308
Baker S.W. Standards for the playing quality of artificial turf for association football. In: Schmidt RC. Natural and artificial playing fields: characteristics and safety features, eds. Schmidt, Hoerner, Milner and Morehouse. Portland: Book News, Inc; 1990. p. 48-60. https://doi.org/10.1520/STP25348S
Bell M.J., Baker S.W., Canaway P.M. Playing quality of sports surfaces: a review. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 1985; 61:26-45.
Bonstingl R.W., Morehouse A.C., Niebel B.W. Torques developed by different types of shoes on various playing surfaces. Medicine and Science in Sports. 1975; 7(2):127-131.
Canaway P.M., Bell M.J. An apparatus for measuring traction and friction on natural and artificial playing surfaces. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 1986; 62:211-214.
Ekstrand J., Nigg B.M. Surface-related injuries in soccer. Sports Med. 1989; 8(1):56-62. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-198908010-00006
Gonzalez J.C., Payán M.L. Lesiones relacionadas con la superficie de juego en el fútbol. Selección. 2001; 10(1):58-61.
Gordon, S. Refurbishement of synthetic turf pitches at two national sports centres. Sports Council. Datasheet. 1993; 63:1-12.
Holmes G., Bell M.J. Technical note: The effect of football type and inflation pressure on rebound resilience. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 1984; 61:132-135.
Heidt R.S., Dormer S.G., Crawley P.W., Scranton P.E., Losse G., Howard M. Differences in friction and torsional resistance in athletic shoe-turf surface interfaces. Am J Sports Med. 1996; 24(6):834-842. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659602400621
Lambson R.B., Barnhill B.S., Higgins R.W. Football cleat design and its effect on anterior cruciate ligament injuries: A three-year prospective study. Am. J. Sports Med. 1996; 24:155-159. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659602400206
Lloyd D.G., Stevenson M.G. Dynamic friction measurements on artificial sports turf. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 1990; 66:149-159.
Majid F., Bader D.L. A biomechanical analysis of the plantar surface of soccer shoes. Proc Inst Mech Eng. 1993; 207(2):93-101. https://doi.org/10.1243/PIME_PROC_1993_207_276_02
Mazur A., Bretsch J. Looking back. Synthetic turf and football injuries. Risk: Health, safey & enviorement. 1999; 1:1-6.
Milburn P.D, Barry E.B. Shoe-surface interaction and the reduction of injury in rugby union. Sports Med. 1998; 25(5):319-27. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199825050-00003
Nigg B.M., Yeadon M.R. Biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces. J. Sports Sciences. 1987; 5:117.145.
Nigg B.M, Segesser B. The influence of playing surfaces on the load on the locomotor system and on football and tennis injures. Sports medicine. 1988; 5:375-385. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-198805060-00003
Pérez P., Martinez A., Gámez J., Due-as L. Generación de criterios de calzado para la práctica del fútbol en campos de tierra; entrevista a expertos y estudio epidemiológico. II Congreso de Educación Física y Deportes. Nuevas aportaciones al estudio de la actividad física y el deporte; 2003. p. 293-305.
Pine D. Artificial vs natural turf: injury perceptions fan the debate. Phys. Sports Medicine. 1991; 19:125-128. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913847.1991.11702235
Powell J.W., Schootman M. A multivariate risk analysis of selected playing surfaces in the National Football League: 1980 to 1989. An epidemiologic study of knee injuries. Am J Sports Med. 1992; 20(6):686-94. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659202000609
Rodeo S.A., O'brien S., Warren R.F., Barnes R., Wickiewicz T.L., Dillingham M.F. Turf-toe: an analysis of metatarsophalangeal joint sprains in professional football players. Am J Sports Med. 1990; 18(3):280-285. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659001800311
Stanitski C.L., Mcmaster J.H., Fergruson R.J. Synthetic turf and grass: a comparative study. J. Sports Med. 1974; 2(1):22-27. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354657400200103
Skovron M.L., Levy I.M., Agel J. Living with artificial grass: a knowledge update. Part 2: Epidemiology. Am J Sports Med. 1990; 18(5):510-513. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659001800511
Torg J.S., Quedenfeld T., Landau S. The shoe-surface interface and its relationship to football knee injuries. J. Sports Med. 1974; 2:261-269. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354657400200502
Valiant G.A. Traction characteristics of outsoles for use on artificial playing surfaces. In: Natural and Artificial Playing Fields: Characteristics and Safety Features, ASTM STP 1073. Eds.Schmidt R.C., Hoerner, E.F., Milner, E.M. and Morehouse, C.A., American Society for Testing and Materials: Philadelphia; 1990. p. 61-68. https://doi.org/10.1520/STP25349S
Winterbottom W. Artificial grass surfaces for association football - Report and recommendations. The Sport Council, London. 1985.
Copyright (c) 2009 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.