Physiological profile of elite triathletes: A comparison between young and professional competitors

Víctor Díaz, Augusto G. Zapico, Ana B. Peinado, María Álvarez, Pedro J. Benito, Francisco J. Calderón

Abstract

The aim of the present work was to compare the cardiorespiratory response of two high level groups of triathletes of different age during a simulation of a cycling-running succession. The two groups, G1 (n=6; age 23.8 ± 5.6 years; weight 71.2 ± 8.7 kg; height 180.0 ± 8.8 cm) and G2 (n=9; age 15.2 ± 0.7 years; weight 60.2 ± 6.8 kg; height 173.6 ± 6.4 cm) performed two tests in a random order. Trial 1 (C-R) consisted of 30 min cycling with a load corresponding to the ventilatory threshold previously calculated, followed by a 3000 m run at the highest possible intensity around a 400 m track. Trial 2 (R), consisted of a 3000 m run at the maximum intensity possible only. The G1 subjects took less time to complete the distance (591.2 compared to 669.1 s for the G2 subjects in the C-R setting, and 584.6 vs. 645.5 s in the R setting). In addition, the G1 subjects showed a more adapted cardiorespiratory response than the G2 subjects. In conclusion, the results show a profile in terms of cardiorespiratory response and performance for senior and young triathletes highly trained.


Keywords

Cycling-Running trial; Comparative study; Metabolic cost; Cardiorespiratory response; Performance

References

Ariens G.A., Van Mechelen W., Kemper H.C., Twisk J.W. The longitudinal development of running economy in males and females aged between 13 and 27 years: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Study. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1997; 76(3):214-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050239

Beaver W.L., Wasserman K., Whipp B.J. A new method for detecting anaerobic threshold by gas exchange. J Appl Physiol. 1986; 60(6):2020-7.

Bijker K.E., De Groot G., Hollander A.P. Differences in leg muscle activity during running and cycling in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002; 87(6):556-61. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0663-8

Boussana A., Galy O., Hue O., Matecki S., Varray A., Ramonatxo M., et al. The effects of prior cycling and a successive run on respiratory muscle performance in triathletes. Int J Sports Med. 2003; 24(1):63-70. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-37201

Boussana A., Matecki S., Galy O., Hue O., Ramonatxo M., Le Gallais. The effect of exercise modality on respiratory muscle performance in triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001; 33(12):2036-43. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200112000-00010

Bunc V., Heller J., Horcic J., Novotny J. Physiological profile of best Czech male and female young triathletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1996; 36(4):265-70.

Caillaud C., Serre-Cousine O., Anselme F., Capdevilla X., Prefaut. Computerized tomography and pulmonary diffusing capacity in highly trained athletes after performing a triathlon. J Appl Physiol. 1995; 79(4):1226-32.

Daniels J.T. A physiologist's view of running economy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1985; 17(3):332-8. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198506000-00006

Dempsey J.A., Aaron E., Martin B.J. Pulmonary function and prolonged exercise. In: Lamb DR, Murray R, eds. Perspectives in exercise science and sports medicine. Indianapolis: Benchmark Press, Inc. 1988:75-124.

Di Prampero P.E. The energy cost of human locomotion on land and in water. Int J Sports Med. 1986; 7(2):55-72. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1025736

Díaz V., Benito P.J., Peinado A.B., Álvarez M., Martín C., Di Salvo V., et al. Validation of a new portable metabolic system during an incremental running test. J.Sport Sci Med. 2008; 7(4):532-6.

Díaz V., Peinado A.B., Álvarez M., Zapico A.G., Benito P.J., Calderón F.J. La respuesta cardiorrespiratoria durante la segunda transición del triatlón: Revisión. RICYDE Rev Int Cienc Deporte. 2009; 14(5):45. https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2009.01405

Foster C., Schrager M., Snyder A.C., Thompson N.N. Pacing strategy and athletic performance. Sports Med.1994; 17(2):77-85. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199417020-00001

Guezennec C.Y., Vallier J.M., Bigard A.X., Durey A. Increase in energy cost of running at the end of a triathlon. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996; 73(5):440-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00334421

Hamilton M.T., Gonzalez-Alonso J., Montain S.J., Coyle E.F. Fluid replacement and glucose infusion during exercise prevent cardiovascular drift. J Appl Physiol. 1991; 71(3):871-7.

Hausswirth C., Bigard A.X., Berthelot M., Thomaidis M., Guezennec C.Y. Variability in energy cost of running at the end of a triathlon and a marathon. Int J Sports Med. 1996; 17(8):572-9. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-972897

Hausswirth C., Bigard A.X., Guezennec C.Y. Relationships between running mechanics and energy cost of running at the end of a triathlon and a marathon. Int J Sports Med. 1997; 18(5):330-9. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-972642

Hausswirth C., Brisswalter J., Vallier J.M., Smith D., Lepers R. Evolution of electromyographic signal, running economy, and perceived exertion during different prolonged exercises. Int J Sports Med. 2000; 21(6):429-36. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-3832

Hausswirth C., Lehenaff D., Dreano P., Savonen K. Effects of cycling alone or in a sheltered position on subsequent running performance during a triathlon. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999; 31(4):599-604. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199904000-00018

Hausswirth C., Vallier J., Lehenaff D., Brisswalter J., Smith D., Millet G., et al. Effect of two drafting modalities in cycling on running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001; 33(3):485-92. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200103000-00023

Hill N.S., Jacoby C., Farber H.W. Effect of an endurance triathlon on pulmonary function. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991; 23(11):1260-4. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199111000-00010

Hue O., Boussana A., Galy O., Le Gallais D., Chamari K., Prefaut C. The effect of multi-cycle-run blocks on pulmonary function in triathletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2001a; 41(3):300-5.

Hue O., Galy O., Le Gallais D., Prefaut C. Pulmonary responses during the cycle-run succession in elite and competitive triathletes. Can J Appl Physiol. 2001b; 26(6):559-73. https://doi.org/10.1139/h01-031

Hue O., Le Gallais D., Boussana A., Chollet D., Prefaut C. Performance level and cardiopulmonary responses during a cycle-run trial. Int J Sports Med. 2000; 21(4):250-5. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-8883

Hue O., Le Gallais D., Chollet D., Boussana A., Prefaut C. The influence of prior cycling on biomechanical and cardiorespiratory response profiles during running in triathletes. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1998; 77(1-2):98-105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050306

Hue O., Le Gallais D., Prefaut C. Specific pulmonary responses during the cycle-run succession in triathletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001c; 11(6):355-61. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2001.110607.x

Hue O., Valluet A., Blonc S., Hertogh C. Effects of multicycle-run training on triathlete performance. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2002; 73(3):289-95. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2002.10609022

Johnson B.D., Babcock M.A., Suman O.E., Dempsey J.A. Exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in healthy humans. J Physiol. 1993; 460:385-405. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1993.sp019477

Krahenbuhl G.S., Morgan D.W., Pangrazi R.P. Longitudinal changes in distance-running performance of young males. Int J Sports Med. 1989; 10(2):92-6. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1024881

Kreider R.B., Boone T., Thompson W.R., Burkes S., Cortes C.W. Cardiovascular and thermal responses of triathlon performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988; 20(4):385-90. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198808000-00010

Landers G.J., Blanksby B.A., Ackland T.R., Smith D. Morphology and performance of world championship triathletes. Ann Hum Biol. 2000; 27(4):387-400. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460050044865

Millet G.P., Bentley D.J. The physiological responses to running after cycling in elite junior and senior triathletes. Int J Sports Med. 2004; 25(3):191-7. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-45259

Millet G.P., Millet G.Y., Candau R.B. Duration and seriousness of running mechanics alterations after maximal cycling in triathletes. Influence of the performance level. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2001; 41(2):147-53.

Millet G.P., Millet G.Y., Hofmann M.D., Candau R.B. Alterations in running economy and mechanics after maximal cycling in triathletes: influence of performance level. Int J Sports Med. 2000; 21(2):127-32. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-8866

Millet G.P., Vleck V.E. Physiological and biomechanical adaptations to the cycle to run transition in Olympic triathlon: review and practical recommendations for training. Br J Sports Med. 2000; 34(5):384-90. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.34.5.384

O'toole M.L., Douglas P.S. Applied physiology of triathlon. Sports Med. 1995; 19(4):251-67. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199519040-00003

Rowell L.B. Human cardiovascular adjustments to exercise and thermal stress. Physiol Rev. 1974; 54(1):75-159.

Rowlands D.S., Downey B. Physiology of Triathlon. In: Garret WEJ, Kirkendall DT, eds. Exercise and Sport Science. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000:919-39.

Sjodin B., Svedenhag J. Oxygen uptake during running as related to body mass in circumpubertal boys: a longitudinal study. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1992; 65(2):150-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00705073

Van Rensburg J.P., Kielblock A.J., Van Der Linde A. Physiologic and biochemical changes during a triathlon competition. Int J Sports Med. 1986; 7(1):30-5. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1025731

Vleck V.E., Bentley D.J., Millet G.P., Burgi A. Pacing during an elite Olympic distance triathlon: Comparison between male and female competitors. J Sci Med Sport. 2008; 11(4):424-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.01.006

Vleck V.E., Burgi A., Bentley D.J. The consequences of swim, cycle, and run performance on overall result in elite olympic distance triathlon. Int J Sports Med. 2006; 27(1):43-8. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-837502




DOI: https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2009.43.05