Characteristics of chosen parameters of external and internal loads in eastern European high level field hockey players

Jan Konarski

Abstract

The analysis of literature showed that while football (soccer) has many articles about different match analysis, field hockey has little such publications. Mainly West European Country teams or teams from other continents are studied. Still, there is no such information in reference to eastern hockey, particularly about high level competitors in Poland. Hence, the main aim of this study was to work out the characteristics of external and internal loads on Polish National Team field hockey players, representing a eastern European country. In field hockey, important information about competitive efforts must be taken into consideration to ensure correct design of the training process. For kinematics analysis (distance and velocity) Erdman's method was used, to analyze EE and HR Polar Vantage with software Polar Precision Performance were used. The results were worked out in a basic statistical way and to software Statictica 8.0, was used. It was stated that average distance covered by a player in a match is about 10,080 m (between 9,700 and 10,500 m), mean and instantaneous velocity were 2.40 m/s (between 2.29 and 2.50 m/s) and 8.92 m/s (between 8.49 and 9.22 m/s), EE average value was 947 kcal (between 874 and 1051 kcal), average value of HR and maximal value of HR were 135 bmp (between 126 and 142 bmp) and 187 bmp (between 184 and 189 bmp) respectively. The individual differences in results and playing position were noted. The results of this research bring important and necessary data for preparing precise training programs in field hockey. It can be assumed that using the information provided will allow for optimal preparation of the players to take part in competitions.


Keywords

Distance; Velocity; Heart rate; Energy expenditure; Erdman’s Method; Match; Kinematics

References

Andrzejewski M. (2006) Wpływ indywidualizacji treningu na reakcje fizjologiczno-biochemiczne, psychomotoryczne I zdolności szybkościowe młodych piłkarzy nożnychw półrocznym cyklu szkolenia. [Influence of training individualization on physiological, biochemical, psycho-motor and speed abilities reactions of youth football players in half year training period] (English abstract) University school of PE in Poznań, Poland.

Anders S., Mayers S. (1999). Field hockey. Steps to success. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Astrand P.O., Rodahl K. (1987). Textbook of physiology. 3rd Ed. New York, McGraw-Hill.

Boyle P.M., Mahoney C.A., Wallace W.F. (1994). The competitive demands of elite male field hockey. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 34(3), 235-241.

Bangsbo J. (1994). The physiology of soccer with special reference to intense intermittent exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, An International Journal of Physiological Sciences, vol. 151, Suplementum 619.

Chmura J. (1997). Bioenergetyka wysiłku piłkarza podczas meczu. [Bioenergetics efforts of football player during match]. Sport Wyczynowy, No 11-12, 17-23.

Chmura J. (1998). Zmiany wybranych wskaźników fizjologiczno – biochemicznych u piłkarza podczas meczu. [Changes of chosen physiological-biochemical indexes of football player during match]. Sport Wyczynowy, No, 34-40.

Czerwiński J. (1996). Charakterystyka gry w piłce ręcznej. [Characteristics of handball] University school of PE in Gdańsk, Poland.

Dargiewicz R., Jastrzębski Z.B. (1998). Analiza kinematyczna gry reprezentacji Polski w piłce nożnej. [Kinematics analysis of Polish Football National Team] [in:], Lokomocja'98 (edited by W.S. Erdmann), Gdańsk, Poland pp. 72-79.

Dargiewicz R. (2004) Badania kinematyki gry w piłkę nożną na różnych etapach mistrzostwa sportowego. [Kinematics of football research at the different championship stage]. University school of PE in Gdańsk, Poland.

Dargiewicz R. (2007) Wykorzystanie fotokinemetrii w ocenie lokomocji piłkarzy nożnych podczas meczu. [Using photo-cinematography to locomotion football players assessing during match] [in:] Jastrzębski Z. (ed.) Diagnostyka wytrenowania zawodników różnych dyscyplin sportowych. [Diagnosis of competitors train in different sports discipline]. EPISTEME, 62, Olecko-Warszawa, 145-172.

Dufour W. (1993). Computer - assisted scouting in soccer. [in:] Science and football II, (edited by T. Reilly, J. Clarys, and A. Stibbe), pp. 160 – 173. London: E & FN Spon.

Ekbom B. (1986). Applied physiology of soccer. Sports Medicine, No 3, 50-60. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-198603010-00005

Erdmann W.S. (1993). Quantification of games - preliminary kinematics investigations in soccer. [in:] Science and Football II, (edited by T. Reilly, J. Clarys, and A. Stibbe), pp.174-179. London: E & FN Spon.

Erdmann W.S., Grubecki K. (1994). Rejestracja telewizyjna całego boiska

I bieżni dla analizy ruchu zawodników. [TV recording of all field and truck for movement analysis of athletes] Study and Monography University school of PE in Wrocław, Poland, No 40, 19-32.

Erdmann W.S. (2000). Rejestracja i analiza ruchu zawodników w zespołowych grach sportowych.[Recording and players movement analysis in sports team game]. Sport Wyczynowy, No 9-10, 65-88.

Foran B. (2001). High-performance sports conditioning. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Huges M. (1993). Notation analysis in football. [in:] Science and football II (edited by T. Reilly, J. Clarys, and A. Stibbe), pp.151-159. London: E & FN Spon.

Huges M. (1996). Notational analysis. [in:] Science and Soccer (edited by T. Reilly), pp. 343-361. London: E & FN Spon.

Hübner-Woźniak E. (1994). Parametry biochemiczne w praktyce treningu. Trening, No 3 (23), 41-46.

Konarski J. (2002). Analiza kinematyczna walki sportowej na przykładzie hokeja na trawie. [Kinematics anslysis of sports fight on the example of field hockey] [in:] Efekty pohyboveho zatizeni v edukacnim prostredi telesne vychovy a sportu. Sbornik referatu ze 4. mezinarodniho vedeckeho seminare (edited by D.Tomajko), pp. 199-210. Univerzita Palackeho v Olomouci, Czech Republic.

Konarski J. (2003a). Charakterystyka obciążeń zewnętrznych i wewnętrznych w warunkach zawodów i treningu w hokeju na trawie. [Characteristics of external and internal loads in field hockey competitions and training]. University School of Physical Education in Poznań, Poland.

Konarski J., Strzelczyk R. (2003b). Characteristic of selected parameters of external load of players during a match and training on the example of field hockey. [in:]. New Ideas in Sport Sciences: Current Issues and Perspectives. Part 1, (edited by W. Starosta and W. Osiński), pp. 128-131. IASK Library series: vol.15.

Konarski J., Matuszyński M., Strzelczyk R. (2006) Different team defense tactics and heart rate during a field hockey match. Stud.Phys.Cult.Tourism t. 13 Suppl. s. 145-148.

Konarski J., Strzelczyk R., Karpowicz K., Janowski J. (2009) Zakładana i rzeczywista zmienność zdolności motorycznych w cyklu treningowym (na przykładzie zawodniczek uprawiających hokej na trawie) [ Assumed and real motor aims changes in macrocycle (on the example female field hockey players)]. [w:] Kwieciński J., Tomczak M. (ed.) Wybrane aspekty kultury fizycznej – stan i perspektywy. [Chosen physical culture aspects – state and perspectives]. Konin, Poland, 25-35.

Konarski J., Strzelczyk R. (2009) Characteristics of differences in energy expenditure and heart rate during indoor and outdoor hockey matches. Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism. Vol 2.

Krusinskiene R., Skarbalius A. (2002). Handball match analysis: Computerized notation system. Education Physical Training Sport. Biomedical Sciences. No 3 (44), 23-33.

Kuzora P., Erdmann W.S. (1998). Program komputerowy badania gier zespołowych. [Software to research team games] [in:] Lokomocja'98. (edited by W.S. Erdmann), pp. 163-168. Gdańsk, Poland.

Krzykała M., Konarski J. (2008a) Body composition of field hockey players in periodical structure of training. Antropomotoryka 18 nr 42 pp. 53-60.

Krzykała M., Konarski J. (2008b) Body composition of field hockey players in periodical structure of training. Antropomotoryka. No 42, 53-60.

Ohashi J., Togari H., Isokawa M., Suzuki S. (1988). Measuring movement speed and distances covered during soccer match play. [in:] Science and Football (edited by T. Reilly, A. Lees, K. Davis and W.J. Murphy), pp.329-333. London: E & FN Spon.

Podgórski T., Kryściak J., Domaszewska K., Pawlak M., Konarski J. (2006) Influence of maximal exercise on organism's antioxidant potential in field hockey players. Medicina Sportiva 10 nr 4 pp. 102-104.

Podgórski T., Konarski J., Kryściak J., Domaszewska K., Pawlak M. (2008) Influence of exercise on selected parameters of iron metabolism on field hockey players organisms. Medycyna Sportowa 24 no 3 pp. 159-170.

Reilly T., Borrie A. (1992) Physiology applied to field hockey. Sports Med. 14: 10-26. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199214010-00002

Reilly T. (1994). Physiological aspects of soccer. Biology of Sport, No 1, vol. 11., 3-20.

Reilly T. (1996). Motion analysis and physiological demands. [in:] Science and Soccer (edited by T. Reilly), pp. 65-81. London: E & FN Spon.

Sharkey B. (1986). Coaches guide to sport physiology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Spencer M., Lawrence S., Rechichi C., Bishop D., Dawson B., Goodman C. (2004) Time- motion analysis of elite field hockey, with special reference to repeated-sprint activity. Journal of Sport Sciences, 22, 843-850. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410410001716715

Straburzyńska-Lupa A., Konarska A., Nowak A., Straburzyńska-Migaj E., Konarski J., Kijewski K., Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak Ł. (2007) Effect of whole-body cryotherapy on selected blood chemistry parameters in professional field hockey players. Fizjoterapia Polska. 7(1),15-20.

Strzelczyk R., Konarski J., Erdmann W.S. (2000). Z badań relatywizacji obciążeń treningowych i meczowych w hokeju na trawie. [From the research of training and match loads relativization in field hockey]. [in:] Trening sportowy na przełomie wieków [Sports training at the turn of centuries] (ed. Sozański, Perkowski, Śledziewski), Warszawa-Spała, Poland pp.288-292.

Strzelczyk R., Konarski J., Karpowicz K., Janowski J. (2001) Changes in the main abilities of field hockey players during the preparatory period leading up to main competition. Gymnica 2001 t. 31 nr 2 s. 17-23.

Withers R., Maricic Z., Wasilewski S., Kelly L. (1982). Match analysis of Australian professional soccer players. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 8, 159-176.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2010.51.06