Anthropometry and motor fitness in children aged 6-12 years
This study aimed at evaluating motor abilities and anthropometric parameters in children aged 6-12 years and their interrelationships. One hundred fifty-two children underwent standard anthropometry (BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, sum of five skinfolds) and motor fitness tests (standing long jump and 30m dash). Data were stratified by age (6-7, 8-9, 10-12 years) and sex (M/F), and the Spearman correlation coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between BMI and the other anthropometric measurements in each class as well as the correlation between anthropometric parameters and fitness tests. The effect of age, sex, and individual anthropometric measurement on velocity or jump length was evaluated by ANOVA. BMI positively correlated with waist circumference and subcutaneous fat, and negatively correlated with body density. Motor fitness was not significantly affected by BMI, while sum of five skinfolds negatively associated with velocity in males aged 6-7 years and with jump length in females aged 8-12 years. Motor fitness significantly correlated with age, and performance was higher in males. Moreover, motor fitness tests positively correlated with each other, especially in females. In the 6-12 years period motor performance improves with age and improvement is partially sex-related; this correlation is higher in boys, possibly because of their lesser amount of fat. Subcutaneous fat is a better predictor of physical fitness than BMI or waist circumference. Results also suggest that explosive strength and velocity are related the 6-12 years age span, possibly because both are power events, which involve horizontal movement of the centre of mass.
Adam, C., Klissouras, V., Ravazzolo, M., Renson, R., Tuxworth, W. Eurofit: European Test of Physical Fitness. 1988. Rome: Council of European Committee for Development of Sport.
Arceneaux, J.M., Hill, S.K., Chamberlin, C.M., Dean, R.S. Developmental and sex differences in sensory and motor functioning. International Journal of Neuroscience. 1997; 89:253-263. https://doi.org/10.3109/00207459708988478
Arfai, K., Pitukcheewanont, P.D., Goran, M.I., Tavare, C.J., Heller, L., Gilsanz, V. Bone, muscle, and fat: sex-related differences in prepubertal children. Radiology. 2002; 224:338-44. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2242011369
Argyle, J. Approaches to detecting growth faltering in infancy and childhood. Annals of Human Biology. 2003; 30:499-519. https://doi.org/10.1080/0301446032000112698
Backman, E. Methods for measurement of muscle function: Methodological aspects, reference values for children, and clinical applications. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 1988; Suppl. 20:9-95.
Ball, T.E., Massey, B.H., Misner, J.E., Mckeown, B.C. & Lohman, T.G. The relative contribution of strength and physique to running and jumping performance of boys 7-11. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 1992; 32:364-371.
Benefice, E., Fouere, T., Malina, R.M. Early nutritional history and motor performance of Senegalese children, 4-6 years of age. Annals of Human Biology. 1999; 26:443-455. https://doi.org/10.1080/030144699282561
Berg, K., Miller, M., Stephens, L. Determinants of 30 meters sprint time in pubescent males. Journal of Sports Medicine. 1986; 26:225-30.
Berk, L.E. Child Development, 4th ed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Biddle, S., Sallis, J.F., Cavill, N.A. Young and active? Young people and health-enhancing physical activity: evidence and implications. London, Health Education Authority, 1998.
Bös, K. Ast 6-11 Allgemeiner sportmotorischer Test für Kinder von 6-11 Jahren. Haltung und Bewegung. 2000; 20:5-16.
Brambilla, P., Bedogni, G., Moreno, L.A., Goran, M.I., Gutin, B., Fox, K.R., Peters, D.M., Barbeau, P., De Simone, M., Pietrobelli, A. Crossvalidation of anthropometry against magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in children. International Journal of Obesity. 2006; 30:23-30. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803163
Buonaccorsi, A. Manuale di standardizzazione dei test motori. Osservatorio Nazionale Capacità Motorie C.O.N.I. National Olympic Italian Committee, Rome, 2003.
Butcher, J.E., Eaton, W.O. Gross and fine motor proficiency in preschoolers: relationships with free play behaviour and activity level. Journal of Human Movement Studies. 1989; 16:27-36.
Butterfield, S.A., Lehnhard, R.A., Coladarci, T. Age, sex, and body mass index in performance of selected locomotor and fitness tasks by children in grades k-2'. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2002; 94:80-86. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.2002.94.1.80
Cole, T.J., Bellizzi, M.C., Flegal, K.M., Dietz, W.H. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. British Medical Journal. 2000; 320:1–6. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240
Cureton, K.J., Baumgartner, T.A., McManis, B.G. Adjustment of 1-mile run/walk test scores for skinfold thickness in youth. Pediatric Exercise Science. 1991; 3:152-167. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.3.2.152
Davies, P.L., Rose, J.D. Motor skills of typically developing adolescent: awkwardness or improvement? Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics. 2000; 20:19-42. https://doi.org/10.1080/J006v20n01_03
Dencker, M., Andersen, L.B. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children. Journal of Sports Medicine. 2008; 28:133-144. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-097X.2008.00788.x
Ellery, P.J. The relationship between gross motor skill performance and skinfold thickness, physical activity instruction, age, gender, and parental income in pre-school age children (motor development). Dissertation Abstracts International. 1991; 52 (09A), 3216.
Farrar, M., Thorland, W. Relationship between isokinetic strength and sprint times in college-age men. Journal of Sports Medicine. 1987; 27:368-372.
Fiørtoft, I. Motor fitness in pre-primary school children: the EUROFIT motor fitness test explored on 5-7-yearold children. Pediatric Exercise Science. 2000 ; 12 :424-436. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.12.4.424
Fomon, S.J., Haschke, F., Ziegler, E.E., Nelson, S.E. Body composition of reference children from birth to age 10 years. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1982; 35(5 Suppl):1169-1175.
Gallahue, D.L. & Ozmun, J.C. Understanding Motor Development. Infants, Children, Adolescents, Adults, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2006.
Gallahue, D.L. Developmental Movement Experiences for Children. New York: Collier Macmillan, 1982.
Graf, C., Koch, B., Kretschmann-Kandel, E., Falkowski, G., Christ, H., Coburger, S., Lehmacher, W., Bjarnason-Wehrens, B., Platen, P., Tokarski, W., Predel, H.G., Dordel, S. Correlation between BMI, leisure habits and motor abilities in childhood (CHILT-project). International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 2004; 28:22-6. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802428
Haywood, K.M., Getchell, N. Lifespan motor development. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, USA, 2001.
Hensley, L.D., East, W.B., Stillwell, J.L. Body fatness and motor performance during adolescence. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1982; 53:133-140. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1982.10605239
Johnson, B.L., Nelson, J.K. Practical measurements for evaluation in physical education. 4th ed. Edina (MN): Burgess International, 1986.
Kautianen, S., Rimpelä, A., Vikat, A., Virtanen, S.M. Secular trends in overweight and obesity among Finnish adolescents in 1977-1999. International Journal of Obesity. 2002; 26:544-552. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801928
Kemper, H.C.H., Verschuur, R., Ritmeester, J.W. Influence of age, body weight and body mass upon the MOPER fitness test results of 12-18 year old boys and girls. In: Physical Fitness Research ICPFR, T. Isho (Ed.). Tokyo: Baseball Magazine SHA, 1983.
Kiphart, E.J., Schilling, F. Körperkoordinations Test für Kinder. Beltz Test GmbH, Weinheim. Weinheim, 1974.
Krebs, N.F., Himes, J.H., Jacobson, D., Nicklas, T.A., Guilday, P., Styne, D. Assessment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics. 2007; 120 Suppl.4:S193-228. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-2329D
Levy, F., Hobbes, G. The influences of social class and sex on sustained attention (vigilance) and motor inhibition in children. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 1979; 13: 231-234. https://doi.org/10.3109/00048677909159141
Leyten, C. De Moper Fitheidstest; Onderzoeksverslag van 9 t/m 11 Jarigen. Haarlem: De Vrieseborch. [in Dutch], 1982.
Lohman, T.G., Roche, A.F., Martorell, R. Anthropometric standardization reference manual. Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, USA, 1988.
Loko, J., Aule, R., Sikkut, T., Ereline, J., Viru, A. Motor performance status in 10 to 17-year-old Estonian girls. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sport. 2000; 10:109-113. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2000.010002109.x
Malina, R.M., Bouchard, C., Bar-Or, O. Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity. (2nd ed.). Human Kinetics, Windsor, Ont., Canada, 2004.
Malina, R.M., Beunen, G.P., Claessens, A.L., Lefevre, J., Eynde, B.V., Renson, R., Vanreusel, B., Simmons, J. Fatness and physical fitness of girls 7-17 years. Obesity Research. 1995; 3:221-231. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1550-8528.1995.tb00142.x
Manios, Y., Kafatos, A., Codrington, C. Gender differences in physical activity and physical fitness in young children in Crete. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 1999; 39:24-30.
Mckenzie, T.L., Sallis, J.F., Broyles, S.L., Zive, M.M., Nader, P.R., Berry, C.C., Brennan, J.J. Childhood movement skills: predictors of physical activity in Anglo-American and Mexican American adolescents? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2002; 73:238-244. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2002.10609017
Monyeki, M.A., Koppes, L.L., Kemper, H.C., Monyeki, K.D., Toriola, A.L., Pienaar, A.E., Twisk, J.W. Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2005; 59:877-83. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602153
Norton, K., Olds, T. Antropometrica. UNSW press, 1996.
Okely, A.D., Booth, M.L., Chey, T. Relationships between body composition and fundamental movement skills among children and adolescents. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2004; 75:238-247. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2004.10609157
Ortega, F.B., Ruiz, J.R., Castillo, M.J., Sjöström, M. Physical fitness in childhood and adolescence: a powerful marker of health. International Journal of Obesity. 2008; 32:1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803774
Pate, R.R. Relationships between skinfold thickness and performance of health-related fitness test items. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1989; 60:183-189. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1989.10607435
Pejčić, A., Žvan, M., Krstulović, S. Relationships between muscular strength, anthropometric characteristics and motor abilities in children 11-12 years of age. Kinesiologia Slovenica. 2004; 10:48-56.
Pissanos, B.W., Moore, J.B., Reeve, T.G. Age, sex, and body composition as predictors of children's performance on basic motor abilities and health-related fitness items. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1983; 56:71-77. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19184.108.40.206
Poplawska, H., Dmitruk, A., Wilczewski, A. Change in body adiposity in girls and boys from the rural areas of East Poland over a time span of 20 years. Ann Hum Biol. 2006; 33(1):78-88. https://doi.org/10.1080/03014460500446244
Raudsepp, L., Päll, P. Physical growth and fatness as related to physical activity in preadolescent girls. Collegium Antropologicum. 1999; 23:53-58.
Rogol, A.D., Roemmich, J.N., Clark, P.A. Growth at puberty. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2002; 31(6 Suppl):192-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(02)00485-8
Silva, P.A., Birkbeck, J., Russel, D.G., Wilson, J. Some biological, developmental, and social correlation of gross and fine motor performance in Dunedian seven year olds. Journal of Human Movement Studies. 1984; 10:35-51.
Taylor, W., Baranowski, T. Physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, and adiposity in children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1991; 62:157-163. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1991.10608706
The Cooper Institute for Aerobics Research (CIAR). The FITNESSGRAM test administration manual (2nd ed.). Dallas, TX: The Cooper Institute for Aerobic Research, 1999.
Thomas, J.R., French, K.E. Gender differences across age in motor performance a meta-analysis. Psychological Bullettin. 1985; 98:260-282. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.260
Tokmakidis, S.P., Kasambalis, A., Christodoulos, A.D. Fitness levels of Greek primary schoolchildren in relationship to overweight and obesity. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2006; 165:867-874. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-006-0176-2
Tomkinson, G.R., Olds, T.S. & Borms, J. Who are the Eurofit test? Medicine and Sport Science. 2007; 50:104-128. https://doi.org/10.1159/000101355
Toriola, A.L., Igbokwe, N.U. Age and sex differences in motor performance of pre-school Nigerian children. Journal of Sport Science. 1986; 4:219-227. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640418608732120
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 6th Edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, January 2005.
Van Der Sluis, I.M., De Ridder, M.A., Boot, A.M., Krenning, E.P., De Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M. Reference data for bone density and body composition measured with dual energy x ray absorptiometry in white children and young adults. Archives of Diseases in Childhood. 2002; 87:341-347. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.87.4.341
Van Praagh, E., Fellmann, N., Bedu, M., Falgariette, G., Coudert, J. Gender difference in the relationship of anaerobic power output to body composition in children. Pediatric Exercise Science. 1990; 2:336-348. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.2.4.336
Welk, G.J., Corbin, C.B., Dale, D. Measurement issues in the assessment of physical activity in children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 2000; 71(2 Suppl): S59-73. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2000.11082788
Wells, J.C.K. Sexual dimorphism of body composition. Best Practice & Research-Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2007; 21:415-430. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2007.04.007
Westerståhl, M., Barnekow-Bergkvist, M., Hedberg, G., Jansson, E. Secular trends in sports: participation and attitudes among adolescents in Sweden from 1974 to 1995. Acta Paediatrica. 2003; 92:602-609. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2003.tb02514.x
Young, W., Mclean, B., Ardagna, J. Relationship between strength qualities and sprinting performance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness.1995; 35:13-19.