Influence of ingesting casein protein and whey protein carbohydrate beverages on recovery and performance of an endurance cycling test
The main aim of this study was to determine if short-term post exercise recovery, cycling performance and blood analysis were altered when consuming three different beverages with the same amounts of calories, a carbohydrate-only beverage (CHO, 9% carbohydrate) a carbohydrate and casein protein beverage (CHO+Pc, 7% carbohydrate and 2% protein) and a carbohydrate and whey hydrolyzed drink (CHO+Pw, 7% + 2 %). Fifteen male cyclists (VO2peak= 63.4±9.6 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed three trials using a randomly counterbalanced, double-blind design. In each trial one litre of one of the test drinks was consumed in fasting conditions after 1 hour ride at 75% VO2peak. After a two hours recovery period the cyclists rode 20 km at the rider's maximum speed for this distance. The results showed no significant differences in the 20-km ride when consuming the CHO (1770±210 s), the CHO+Pc drink (1819±185 s) or the CHO+Pw (1803±201). Post-exercise creatine kinase (CK) was not significantly different between treatments. However, serum insulin concentrations were higher during recovery when CHO+Pc and CHO+Pw beverages were consumed (P
American College of Sports Medicine. Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (7th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.
Arts, F.J.P., Kuipers, H. The relation between power output (W), oxygen uptake (VO2max) and heart rate in male athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 1994; 5(15): 228-231. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1021051
Betts, J.A., Williams, C., Boobis, L., Tsintzas, K. Increased carbohydrate oxidation after ingestion carbohydrate with added protein. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2008; 40: 903–912. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318164cb52
Cepero, M., Rojas, F.J., Geerlings, A., De La Cruz, J.C., Romero, S., Boza, J.J. Effects of a carbohydrate and a carbohydrate and casein protein beverages on recovery and performance of endurance cycling capacity. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise. 2009; 2: 161-172. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2009.42.09
Colombani, P.C., Kovacs, C., Frey-Rindova, P., et al. Metabolic effects of a proteinsupplemented carbohydrate drink in marathon runners. International Journal of Sports Nutrition.1999; 9:181-201. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsn.9.2.181
Haff, G.G., Koch, A.J., Potteiger, J.A., Kuphal, K.E., Magee, L.M., Green, S.B., Jakicic, J.J. Carbohydrate supplementation attenuates muscle glycogen loss during acute bouts of resistance exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2000; 10:326-339. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.10.3.326
Ivy, J.L., Res, P.T., Sprague, R.C., Widzer, M.O. Effect of a carbohydrate-protein supplement on endurance performance during exercise of varying intensity. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2003; 13:388-401. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.13.3.382
Jacobs, K.A., Sherman, W.M. The efficacy of carbohydrate supplementation and chronic high-carbohydrate diets for improving endurance performance. International Journal of Sports Nutrition. 1999; 9(1): 92-115. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsn.9.1.92
Jentjens, R.L., Achten, J., Jeukendrup, A.E. High oxidation rates from combined carbohydrates ingested during exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2004; 36(9):1551-1558. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000139796.07843.1D
Jeukendrup, A.E., Saris, W.M.H., Brouns, F., Kester, A.D.M. A new validated endurance performance test. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1996; 28:266-270. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199602000-00017
Kraemer, W.J., Ratamess, N.A., Volek, J.S., Häkkinen, K., Rubin, M.R., French., D.N., et al. The effects of amino acid supplementation on hormonal responses to overreaching Metabolism. Clinical and Experimental. 2006; 55:282–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2005.08.023
Lemon, P.W., Tarnopolsky, M.A., Macdougal, J.D., Atkinson, S.A. Protein requirements and muscle mass/strength changes during intensive training in novice bodybuilders. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1992; 73:767–775.
Lipsey, M.W. Design Sensitivity: Statistical Power for Experimental Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 1990, 88-92, 133-136.
Luden, N.D., Saunders, M.J., Todd, M.K. Post-exercise carbohydrate-protein-antioxidant ingestion decreases CK and muscle soreness in cross-country runners. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2007; 17:109-122. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.17.1.109
Millard-Stafford, M., Warren, G., Thomas, L., Doyle, J., Snow, T., Hitchcock, K. Recovery from run training: efficacy of a carbohydrate-protein beverage? International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2005. 15:610-624. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.15.6.610
Niles, E.S., Lachowetz, T., Garfi, J., et al. Carbohydrate-protein drink improves time toexhaustion after recovery from endurance exercise. Journal of Exercise Physiology online. 2001; 4:45-52.
Ratamess, N.A., Kraemer, W.J., Volek, J.S., Rubin, M.R., Gomez, A.L., French, D.N., et al. The effects of amino acid supplementation on muscular performance during resistance training overreaching. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2003; 17, 250–258.
Romano-Ely, B.C., Todd, M.K., Saunders, M.J., St Laurent, T.G. Effects of an isocaloric carbohydrate-protein-antioxidant drink on cycling performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2006; 8:1608-1616. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000229458.11452.e9
Saunders, M.J., Kane, M.D., Todd, M.K. Effects of a carbohydrate-protein beverage on cycling endurance and muscle damage. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2004; 36:1233-1238. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000132377.66177.9F
Saunders, M.J., Luden, N.D., Herrick, J.E. Consumption of an oral carbohydrateprotein gel improves cycling endurance and prevents post-exercise muscle damage. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2007; 21(3):678-84.
Saunders, M.J., Luden, N.D., Pratt, C.A., & Moore, R.W. Carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate beverage improves late-race cycling performance and prevents post-exercise muscle damage. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2006; 3(1):20.
Saunders, M.J., Moore, R.W., Kies, A.K., Luden, N.D., Pratt, C. Carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate coingestion's improvement of late-exercise time trial performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2009; 19: 136-149. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.19.2.136
St Laurent, T.G., Todd, M.K., Saunders, M.J., Valentine, R.J., Flohr, J.A. Carbohydrate protein beverage improves muscle damage and function versus isocarbohydrate and isocaloric carbohydrate-only beverages. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2006; 38(5):340. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-200605001-02327
Tarnopolsky, M.A., Atkinson, S.A., Macdougal, J.D., Chesley, A., Phillips, S., Shwarcz, H.P. Evaluation of protein requirements for trained strength athletes. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1992; 73: 1986–1995.
Tipton, K.D. Role of protein and hydrolysates before exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2007; 17: 77-86. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.17.s1.s77
Toone, R.J., Betts, J.A. Isocaloric carbohydrate versus carbohydrate-protein ingestion and cycling time-trial performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2010; 20: 34-43. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.20.1.34
Valentine, R.J., Saunders, M.J., Todd, M.K., St Laurent, T.G. Influence of carbohydrate-protein beverage on cycling endurance and indices of muscle disruption. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2008; 18: 363-378. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.18.4.363
Van Essen, M., Gibala, M.J. Failure of protein to improve time trial performance when added to a sports drink. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2006; 38(8):1476-1483. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000228958.82968.0a
Van Hall, G., Maclean, D.A., Saltin, B., Wagenmakers, A.J. Mechanisms of activation of muscle branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase during exercise in man. Journal of Physiology. 1996; 494(3): 899-905. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1996.sp021542
Van Loon, J.C. Application of protein or protein hydrolysates to improve postexercise recovery. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2007; 17: 104-S117. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.17.s1.s104
Williams, M.B., Raven, P.B., Fogt, D.L., Ivy, J.L. Effects of recovery beverages on glycogen restoration and endurance exercise performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2003; 17:12-19.