Anthropometric and physiological characteristics on Indian inter-university volleyball players
The purpose of this study was of two-folds, firstly, to evaluate the anthropometric profile of Indian inter-university volleyball players and, secondly, to search the correlation of body mass index, % body fat, hand grip strength (right dominant) and Vo2max. with other anthropometric characteristics studied. Eleven anthropometric characteristics, four body composition parameters, two physical and two physiological variables and nine arm anthropometric characteristics were measured on randomly selected 63 inter-university Indian volleyball players (38 males and 25 females) aged 18-25 years from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India with adequate controls (n = 102, 52 males and 50 females). The results indicated that male volleyball players were taller (6.63%) and heavier (7.31%) and female volleyball players were slightly taller (0.31%) and lighter (3.74%) than their control counterparts. One way analysis of variance showed significant (p≤0.004-0.000) between group differences in all the variables (except hip circumference) between volleyball players and controls. In volley players, significantly positive correlations were found with BMI and other 19 variables, with percent body fat and 6 variables, with right hand grip strength and 20 variables and with Vo2max and other 19 variables, and significantly negative correlations were found with percent body fat and other 16 variables, with right hand grip strength and other 7 variables and with Vo2max with other 8 variables. The findings of the present study might be useful in future investigation on player selection, talent identification in volleyball and training program development.
Ackland, T.R., Ong, K.B., Kerr, D.A., Ridge, B. Morphological characteristics of Olympic sprint canoe and kayak paddlers. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2003; 6:285-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(03)80022-1
Bandyopadhyay, A. Anthropometry and body composition in soccer and volleyball players in West Bengal, India. Journal of Physical Anthropology. 2007; (4):501-505. https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa2.26.501
Barut, C., Demirel, P., Kiran, S. Evaluation of hand anthropometric measurements and grip strength in basketball, volleyball and handball players. Anatomy. 2008; 2:55-59. https://doi.org/10.2399/ana.08.055
Bouchard, C., Lortie, G. Heredity and endurance performance. Sports Medicine. 1984; 1:38-64. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-198401010-00004
Bourgois, J., Claessens, A.L., Vrijens, J., Philippaerts, R., Renterghem, B.V., Thomis, M., Janssens, M., Loos, R., Lefevre, J. Anthropometric characteristics of elite male junior rowers. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2000; 34:213-216. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.34.3.213
Chatterjee, S., Chatterjee, P., Bandyopadhyay, A. Skinfold thickness, body fat percentage and body mass index in obese and non-obese Indian boys. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006; 15:232–235.
Claessens, A.L., Lefevre, J., Beunen, G., Malina, R.M. The contribution of anthropometric characteristics to performance scores in elite female gymnasts. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 1999; 39:355-360.
Duncan, M.J., Woodfield, L., Al-Nakeeb, Y. Anthropometric and Physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2006; 40:649-51. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.021998
Durnin, J.V.G.A., Womersley, J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skinfold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women aged from 16 to 72 years. British Journal of Nutrition. 1974; 32:77-97. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19740060
Fagard, R., Bielen, E., Amery, A. Heritability of aerobic power and anaerobic energy generation during exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1991; 70:357-362.
Fardy, P.S., Hritz, M.G., Hellerstein, H.K. Cardiac responses during women's intercollegiate volleyball and physical fitness changes from a season of competition. Journal of Sports Medicine. 1976; 16:291-297.
Ferris, D.P., Signorile, F., Caruso, J.F. The relationship between physical and physiological variables and volleyball spiking velocity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 1995; 9(1);32-36.
Filaire, E., Duche, P., Lac, G. Effects of training for two balls on the saliva response of adrenocortical hormones to exercise in elite sportswomen. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 1998; 77:452-456. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050359
Fleck, S., Case, S., Puhl, J., Van-Handle, P. Physical and physiological characteristics of elite women volleyball players. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science. 1985; 10:122-126.
Franks, B.D., Moore, G.C. Effects of calisthenics and volleyball on the AAHPER fitness test and volleyball skill. Research Quarterly. 1969; 40:288-292.
Fry, A.C., Kraemer, W.J., Weseman, C.A., Conroy, B.P., Gordon, S.E., Hoffman, J.R., Maresh, C.M. The effects of an off-season strength and conditioning program on starters and non-starters in women's intercollegiate volleyball. Journal of Applied Sport Science Research. 1991; 5:174-181. https://doi.org/10.1519/1533-4287(1991)005<0174:TEOAOS>2.3.CO;2
Gabbett, T.J. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics amateur rugby players. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2000; 34:303-307. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.34.4.303
Gabbett, T., Georgieff, B. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of Australian junior national, state, and novice volleyball players. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research. 2007; 21(3):902-908.
Gladden, L.B., Colacino, D. Characteristics of volleyball players and success in a national tournament. Journal of Sports Medicine. 1978; 18:57-64.
Hascelik, Z., Basgoze, O., Turker, K., Narman, S., Ozker, R. The effects of physical training on physical fitness tests and auditory and visual reaction times of volleyball players. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 1989; 29:234-239.
Hosler, W.W., Morrow, J.R., Jackson, A.S. Strength, anthropometric, and speed characteristics of college women volleyball players. Research Quarterly. 1978; 49:385-388.
Houtkooper, B.L., Tomthy, G.L., Scott, B.G., Wanda, H.H. Why bioelectric impedance analysis should be used for estimating adiposity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1996; 64:436-448.
Keogh, J. The use of physical fitness scores and anthropometric data to predict selection in an elite under-18 Australian rules football team. Journal of sport Science and Medicine. 1999; 2:125-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(99)80192-3
Kitagawa, K., Ikuta, K., Hara, Y., Hirota, K. Investigation of lean body mass as a limiting factor of maximum oxygen uptake. Japan Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine. 1974; 23:96-100. https://doi.org/10.7600/jspfsm1949.23.96
Kovaleski, J.E., Parr, R.B., Hornak, J.E., Roitman, J.L. Athletic profile of women college volleyball players. The Physician and Sports Medicine. 1980; 8(2):112-116.
Kunstlinger, U., Ludwig, H.G., Stegemann, J. Metabolic changes during volleyball matches. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 1987; 8:315-322. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1025676
Lohmann, T.G., Roche, A.F., Martorell, R. Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books; 1988.
Mcardle, W.D., Katch, F.I., Katch, V.L. Exercise physiology: Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2001.
Mcardle, W.D., Katch, F.L., Pechar, G.S. Reliability and interrelationship between maximal oxygen intake, physical work capacity and step test scores in college women. Medicine and science in Sports and Exercise. 1972; 4:182-6. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-197200440-00019
Morrow, J.R., Jackson, A.S., Hosler, W.W., Kachurik, J.K. The importance of strength, speed, and body size for team success in women's intercollegiate volleyball. Research Quarterly. 1979; 50:429-437.
Pedegana, L.R., Elsner, R.C., Roberts, D., Lang, J., Farewell, V. The relationship of upper extremity strength to throwing speed. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1982; 10(6):352-354. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354658201000606
Polglaze, T., Dawson, B. The physiological requirements of the positions in state league volleyball. International Journal of sports Science and Coaching. 1992; 15:32-37.
Reilly, T., Bangsbo, J., Franks, A. Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2000; 18(9):669-683. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410050120050
Rico-Sanz, J. Body composition and nutritional assessments in soccer. International Journal of Sport Nutrition. 1998; 8(2):113-123. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsn.8.2.113
Slater, G.J., Rice, A.J., Mujika, I., Hahn, A.G., Sharp, K., Jenkins, D.G. Physique traits of lightweight rowers and their relationship to competitive success. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005; 39:736-741. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2004.015990
Spence, D.W., Disch, J.G., Fred, H.L., Coleman, A.E. Descriptive profiles of highly skilled women volleyball players. Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1980; 12:299-302. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198024000-00013
Tsunawake, N., Tahara, Y., Moji, K., Muraki, S., Minowa, K., Yukawa, V. Body composition and physical fitness of female volleyball and basketball players of the Japan inter-high school championship teams. Applied Human Science: Journal of Physiological Anthropology. 2003; 22(4):195-201. https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa.22.195
Tsunawake, N., Tahra, Y., Yukawa, K., Katsura, T., Harada, H., Kikuchi, Y. Characteristics of body shape of female athletes based on factor analysis. Applied Human Science: Journal of Physiological Anthropology. 1995; 14:55-61. https://doi.org/10.2114/ahs.14.55
Viitasalo, J., Rusko, H., Pajala, O., Rahkil, A.P., Ahil, A.M., Montonen, H. Endurance requirements in volleyball. Canadian Journal of Applied Sports Sciences. 1987; 12:194-201.
Wilmore, J.H., Costill, D.L. Physiology of Sports and Exercise. 2nd ed. Human Kinetics, Champaign; 1999. Pp. 490-507.