Expertise development in sport: Contributions under cognitive psychology perspective
The aim of this paper has been that of revising and updating research about expertise development in sport under the cognitive psychology approach. At first, the structure of sport action in open contexts is analysed, differentiating cognitive and execution components. Secondly, having as a reference frame Anderson's cognitive theory, it is possible to remark the importance of the process of building knowledge as a forerunner variable of ability. Finally, the most relevant and consistent findings about the role of knowledge, technical ability and experience are exposed, as well as their inter-relation effect. Departing from the current state of this matter, the necessity to propose new studies deepening about this area of investigation is suggested, especially about the characterization of practice quality that may contribute to the development of sport ability.
Abernethy, B., Thomas, J.R., Thomas, K.T. Strategies for improving understanding of motor expertise. In: JL Starkes, F Allard (Eds.). Cognitive issues in motor expertise. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 1993. Pp. 317-356. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(08)61478-8
Allard, F., Deakin, J., Parker, S., Rodgers, W. Declarative knowledge in skilled motor performance: By-product or constituent? In: JL Starkes, F Allard (Eds.). Cognitive issues in motor expertise. Amsterdam: North Holland; 1993. Pp. 95-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4115(08)61467-3
Allard, F., Starkes, J.L. Motor skill experts in sports, dance, and other domains. In: KA Ericsson, J Smith (Eds.). The study of expertise: Prospects and limits. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press; 1991. Pp. 95-108.
Anderson, J.R. Acquisition of cognitive skill. Psychol Rev. 1982; 89:369-406. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.89.4.369
Anderson, J.R. Language, memory and thought. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1976.
Anderson, J.R. Skill acquisition: Compilation of weak-method problem solutions. Psychol Rev. 1987; 94:192-210. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.94.2.192
Anderson, J.R. The architecture of cognition. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press; 1983.
Baker, J., Davids, K. Sound and fury, signifying nothing? Future directions in the nature-nurture debate. Int J Sport Psychol. 2007; 38:135-143.
Blomqvist, M., Luhtanen, P., Laakso, L. Comparison of two types of instruction in badminton. European Journal of Physical Education. 2001; 6:139-155. https://doi.org/10.1080/1740898010060206
Chi, M.T.H., Rees, E.T. A learning framework for development: The control and construction of hierarchies of skills. Psychol Rev. 1983; 87:447-531. https://doi.org/10.1159/000407967
Chi, M.T.H. Knowledge development and memory performance. In: MP Friedman, JP Das, N O’connor (Eds.). Intelligence and learning. New York: Pleanun Press; 1981. Pp. 221-229. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-1083-9_20
Chi, M.T.H. Knowledge structures and memory development. In: R Siegler (Ed.). Children’s thinking: What develops? Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1978. Pp. 73-105.
Côté, J., Baker, J., Abernethy, B. From play to practice: A developmental framework for the acquisition of expertise in team sports. In: JL Starkes, KA Ericsson (Eds.). Expert performance in sports: advances in research on sport expertise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinectics; 2003. Pp. 89-110.
Côté, J., Baker, J., Abernethy, B. Practice and play in the development of sport expertise. In: G Tenenbaum, RC Eklund (Eds.). Handbook of sport psychology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2007. Pp. 184-202. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118270011.ch8
Ericsson, K.A., Charness, N. Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition. Am Psychol. 1994; 49:725-747. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.8.725
Ericsson, K.A. Development of elite performance and deliberate practice: an update from the perspective of the expert performance approach. In: JL Starkes, KA Ericsson (Eds.). Expert performance in sports: advances in research on sport expertise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2003. Pp. 49-82.
Ericsson, K.A. The acquisition of expert performance: An introduction to some of the issues. In: KA Ericsson (Ed.). The road to excellence: the acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports, and games. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; 1996. Pp. 1-50.
French, K.E., Mcpherson, S.L. Adaptations in response selection processes used during sport competition with increasing age and expertise. Int J Sport Psychol. 1999; 30:173-193.
French, K.E., Nevett, M.E., Spurgeon, J.H., Graham, K.C., Rink, J.E., Mcpherson, S.L. Knowledge representation and problem solution in expert and novice youth baseball players. Res Q Exercise Sport. 1996; 67:368-395. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1996.10607970
French, K.E., Spurgeon, J.H., Nevett, M.E. Expert-novice differences in cognitive and skill execution components of youth baseball performance. Res Q Exercise Sport. 1995; 66:194-201. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1995.10608833
French, K.E., Thomas, J.R. The relation of knowledge development to children´s basketball performance. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1987; 9:15-32. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.9.1.15
Glaser, R., Chi, M.T.H. Overview. In: MTH Chi, R Glaser, MJ Farr (Eds.). The nature of expertise. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1988. Pp. 15-28.
Helsen, W.F., Starkes, J.L., Hodges, N.J. Team sports and the theory of deliberate practice. J Sport Exercise Psy. 1998; 20:12-34. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.20.1.12
Hodges, N.J., Starkes, J.L., Macmahon, C. Expert performance in sport: a cognitive perspective. In: KA Ericsson, N Charness, PJ Feltovich, RR Hoffman (Eds.). The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. Nueva York: Cambridge University Press; 2006. Pp. 471-488. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816796.027
Iglesias, D., Moreno, M.P., Santos-Rosa, F.J., Cervelló, E.M., Del Villar, F. Cognitive expertise in sport: Relationships between procedural knowledge, experience, and performance in youth basketball. J Hum Movement Stud. 2005; 49:65-76.
Iglesias, D., Ramos, L.A., Fuentes, J.P., Sanz, D., Del Villar, F. El conocimiento y la toma de decisiones en los deportes de equipo: una revisión desde la perspectiva cognitiva. Revista de Entrenamiento Deportivo. 2003; 17(2):5-11.
Johnson, B.L., Nelson, J.K. Practical measurements for evaluation in physical education. Minneapolis: Burgess; 1986.
Knapp, B.H. Skill in sport: the attainment of proficiency. Londres: Routledge and Kegan Paul; 1963.
Mcpherson, S.L., French, K.E. Changes in cognitive strategy and motor skill in tennis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Science. 1991; 13:26-41. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.13.1.26
Mcpherson, S.L., Kernodle, M.W. Mapping two new points on the tennis expertise continuum: tactical skills of adult advanced beginners and entry-level professionals during competition. J Sport Sci. 2007; 25(8):945-959. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410600908035
Mcpherson, S.L., Kernodle, M.W. Tactics, the neglected attribute of expertise: problem representations and performance skills in tennis. In: JL Starkes, KA Ericsson (Eds.). Expert performance in sports: advances in research on sport expertise. Champaign, IL.: Human Kinetics; 2003. Pp. 137-167.
Mcpherson, S.L., Thomas, J.R. Relation of knowledge and performance in boys´ tennis: age and expertise. J Exp Child Psychol. 1989; 48:190-211. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0965(89)90002-7
Mcpherson, S.L. Expert-novice differences in performance skills and problem representations of youth and adults during tennis competition. Res Q Exercise Sport. 1999a; 70:233-251. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1999.10608043
Mcpherson, S.L. Expert-novice differences in planning strategies during collegiate singles tennis competition. J Sport Exercise Psy. 2000; 22:39-62. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.22.1.39
Mcpherson, S.L. Tactical differences in problem representations and solutions in collegiate varsity and beginner women tennis players. Res Q Exercise Sport. 1999b; 70:369-384. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1999.10608057
Mcpherson, S.L. The development of sport expertise: mapping the tactical domain. Quest. 1994; 46:223-240. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1994.10484123
Nevett, M.E., French, K.E., Spurgeon, J.H., Rink, J.E., & Graham, K.C. Skill and cognitive contributions to children's baseball performance across age and player positions (Abstract). Res Q Exercise Sport. 1993; 64 (Suppl.): A-78.
Nevett, M.E., French, K.E. The development of sport-specific planning, rehearsal, and updating of plans during defensive youth baseball game performance. Res Q Exercise Sport. 1997; 68:203-214. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1997.10607999
Parker, S.G. Organization of knowledge in ice hockey experts. Unpublished master's thesis. Universidad de New Brunswick; 1989.
Ruiz, L.M. Competencia motriz. Elementos para comprender el aprendizaje motor en educación física escolar. Madrid: Gymnos; 1995.
Singer, R.N., Janelle, C.M. Determining sport expertise: from genes to supremes. Int J Sport Psychol. 1999; 30:117-150.
Starkes, J.L., Deakin, J.M., Lindley, S., Crisp, F. Motor versus verbal recall of ballet sequences by young expert dancers. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1987; 9:222-230. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.9.3.222
Starkes, J.L., Ericsson, K.A. Expert performance in sports: Advances in research on sport expertise. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2003.
Sternberg, R.J., Horvath, J.A. A prototype of expert teaching. Educ Res. 1995; 24(6):9-17. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X024006009
Thomas, J.R., French, K.E., Humphries, C.A. Knowledge development and sport performance: directions for motor behaviour research. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1986; 8:259-272. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.8.4.259
Thomas, J.R., Nelson, J.K. Research methods in physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1990.
Thomas, J.R., Thomas, K.T., Gallagher, J.D. Developmental considerations in skill acquisition. In: RN Singer, M Murphey, LK Tennant (Eds.). Handbook of research on sport psychology. New York: Macmilan; 1993. Pp. 73-105.
Thomas, K.T., Gallagher, J.D., Thomas, J.R. Motor development and skill acquisition during childhood and adolescence. In: RN Singer, HA Hausenblas, CM Janelle. (Eds.). Handbook of sport psychology (Second Edition). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2001.
Thomas, K.T., Thomas, J.R. Developing expertise in sport: the relation of knowledge and performance. Int J Sport Psychol. 1994; 25:295-315.
Tinberg, C.M. The relation of practice time to coaches' objectives, player's improvement and level of expertise. Unpublished master's thesis. Arizona State University; 1993.
Williams, A.M., Davids, K., Williams, J.G. Visual perception and action in sport. London: E. & F. N. Spon; 1999.
Williams, A.M., Davids, K. Declarative knowledge in sport: a by-product of experience or a characteristic of expertise? J Sport Exercise Psy. 1995; 17(3):259-275. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.17.3.259
Williams, A.M., Hodges, N.J. Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory and practice. London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis; 2004.