The impact of physical activities on the development of the females’ character
Nowadays, the participation of females in exercise/ sport is unchallengeable. In addition, the established impacts of the above mentioned activities on females as well as on people in general are far too many. The present study, within the framework of a literature review, aims at the tracing of the impacts of participation in physical activities on the development of female character. The results of this review have revealed that physical activities affect some significant traits of personality, such as its pneumatic, moral and social qualities. The conclusion deriving from such a finding is that physical activities can constitute a means for the development of the females' character.
Abrahamsen, F.E., Roberts, G.C. Moral functioning in youth soccer. Proceeding of the XIth European Congress of Sport Psychology. Copenhagen, Denmark; 2003. Pp. 18.
Aristotelis. Ethics Nikomachia. (Tran., A. Dalezios). Athens: Papiros; 1949.
Blair, S.N., Goodyear, N.N., Gibbons, L.W., Cooper, K.N. Physical fitness and incidence of hypertension in healthy normotensive men and women. J Amer Med Assoc. 1984; 252:487-490. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1984.03350040017014
Blair, S.N., Kohl, H.W., Paffenbarger, R.S.J.R., Clark, D.G., Cooper, K.H., Gibbons, L.W. Physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy men and women. J Amer Med Assoc. 1989; 262:2395-2401. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1989.03430170057028
Boutcher, S.H. Cognitive performance, fitness and ageing. In: SJH Biddle, KR Fox, SH Boutcher (Eds.). Physical activity and psychological well-being. London: Routledge; 2000. Pp. 118-129.
Bredemeier, B., Shields, D. Game reasoning and interactional morality. The J Genetic Psych. 1986; 142:257-275. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1986.9914499
Bredemeier, B., Shields, D. Moral assessment in sport psychology. In: JL Duda (Ed.). Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement. Morgantown WV: Fitness Information Technology; 1998. Pp. 257-276.
Bredemeier, B., Shields, D. Sports and character development. President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sport Res Digest. 2006; 7(1):1-8. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.3.2.255
Bredemeier, B. Children's moral reasoning and their assertive, aggressive, and submissive tendencies in sport and daily life. J Sport & Exerc Psych. 1994; 16:1-14. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.16.1.1
Bredemeier, B. Divergence in children's moral reasoning about issues in daily life and sport specific contexts. I J Sport Psych. 1995; 26:453-463.
Bredemeier, B.J., Shields, D.L. The utility of moral stage analysis in the investigation of athletic aggression. Soc Sport J. 1984; 1:138-149. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.1.2.138
Brustad, R.J., Babkes, M.L., Smith, A.L. Youth in sport: Psychological considerations. In: RN Singer, HA Hausenblas, CM Janelle (Eds.). Handbook of sport psychology. 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons; 2001. Pp. 604-635.
California Department of Education. State study proves physically fit kids perform better academically. News Release. Retrieved 23 November 2003, from http://www.cde.ca.gov/news/releases2002/rel37.asp. 2002.
Camacho, T.C., Roberts, R.E., Lazarus, N.B., Kaplan, G.A., Cohen, R.D. Physical activity and depression: Evidence from the Alameda County Study. Amer J Epidem. 1991; 134:220-231. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116074
Carron, A.V., Hausenblas, H.A., Estabrooks, P.A. The psychology of physical activity. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2003.
Chantal, Y., Bernache-Assollant, I. A prospective analysis of self-dermined sport motivation and sportspersonship orientations. Athletic insight. 2003; 51(4):11-18.
Coakley, J.J. Sport in society: Issues and controversies. 6th ed. Boston: McGraw-Hill; 1998.
Cote, J. Coach and peer influence on children's development through sport. In: JM Silva, DE Stevens (Eds.). Psychological foundations of sport. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon; 2002. Pp. 520-540.
Daniels, E., Sincharoen, S., Leaper, C. The relation between sport orientations and athletic identity among adolescent girl and boy athletes. J Sport Beh. 2005; 28:315-332.
Dwyer, T., Sallis, J.F., Blizzard, L., Lazarus, R., Dean, K. Relation of academic performance to physical activity and fitness in children. Ped Exer Sc. 2001; 13:225-238. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.13.3.225
Eagly, A.H., Crowley, M. Gender and helping behavior: A meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature. Psych Bul. 1986; 100(3):283-308. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.100.3.283
Eagly, A.H., Wood, W. Explaining sex differences in social behavior: A meta-analytic perspective. Pers Soc Psych Bul. 1991; 17:306-315. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167291173011
Eitzen, D.S., Sage, G. Sociology of North American sport. Dubugue, IA: Brown & Benchmark publishers; 1997.
Elley, D., Kirk, D. Developing citizenship through sport: The impact of a sport-based volunteer programme on young sport leaders. Sport Educ Soc. 2002; 7(2):151-166. https://doi.org/10.1080/1357332022000018841
Etnier, J.I., Salazar, W., Landers, D.M., Petruzello, S.J., Han, M., Nowell, P. The influence of physical fitness and exercise upon cognitive functioning: A meta-analysis. J Sport Exerc Psych. 1997; 19:249-274. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.19.3.249
Farmer, M.E., Locke, B.Z., Mosciki, E.K., Dannenberg, A.L., Larson, D.B., Radloff, L.S. Physical activity and depressive symptoms: The NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study. Amer J Epid. 1988; 6:1340-1351. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115087
Feltz, D.L., Landers, D.M., Raider, V. Enhancing self-efficacy in a high-avoidance motor task: A comparison of modeling techniques. J Sport Psych. 1979; 1:112-122. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.1.2.112
Gerdy, J. Sport in school: The future of an institute. New York: Teachers College Colubmia; 2000.
Giuliano, T.A., Popp, K.E., Knight, J.L. Footballs versus barbies: Childhood play activities as predictors of sport participation by women. Sex Rol. 2000; 42:159-181. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007035122089
Greendorfer, S.L. Socialization processes and sport behavior. In: T Horn (Ed.). Advances in sport psychology. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2002. Pp. 377-401.
Guivernau, M., Duda, J. Moral atmosphere and athletic aggressive tendencies in young soccer players. J Moral Educ. 2002; 31(1):67-85. https://doi.org/10.1080/03057240120111445
Harne, A.J., Bixby, W.R. The benefits of and barriers to strength training among college-age women. J Sport Beh. 2005; 28:151-166.
Hayes, S.D., Crocker, P.R.E., Kowalski, K.C. Gender differences in physical self-perceptions, global self-esteem and physical activity: Evaluation of the physical self-perception profile model. J Sport Beh. 1999; 22:1-14.
Health Canada Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living. Retrieved 10 May 2007, from http://www.hc-sc.ca/hppb/paguide/pdf/guideEng.pdf, 2003.
Hellison, D. Teaching responsibility through physical activity. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2003.
Kalliopuska, M. Relation of empathy and self-esteem to active participation in Finnish baseball. Perc Motor Skil. 1987; 65:107-113. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19126.96.36.199
Kalliopuska, M. Self-esteem and narcissism among the most and least empathetic Finnish baseball players. Perc Motor Skil. 1992; 75:945-946. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.525
Kelinske, B., Mayer, B.W., Chen, K.L. Perceived benefits from participation in sports: A gender study. Wom Manag Rev. 2001; 16:75-84. https://doi.org/10.1108/09649420110386601
Kleiber, D.A., Roberts, G.C. The effect of sport experience in the development of social character: An exploratory investigation. J Sport Psych. 1981; 3:114-122. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.3.2.114
Kull, M. The relationship between physical activity, health status and psychological well-being of fertility-aged women. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2002; 12:241-247. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2002.00341.x
Lee, I.M. Physical activity, fitness and cancer. In: C Bouchard, RJ Shepard, T Stephens (Eds.). Physical activity, fitness and health: International. Proceedings and Consensus Statement. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1994. Pp. 814-831.
Lickona, T. Educating for character: How our schools can teach respect and responsibility. New York: Bantam Books; 1991.
Macintyre, A. After virtue. London: Duckworth; 1981.
Mannell, R.C., Kleiber, D.A. A social psychology of leisure. State College, PA: Venture; 1997.
Manson, J.E., Rimm, E.B., Stampfer, M.J., Colditz, G.A., Willett, W.C., Krolewski, A.S., et al. Physical activity and incidence of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in women. Lancet. 1991; 338:774-778. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(91)90664-B
Marcia, J., Friedman, M. Ego identity status in college women. J Per. 1970; 38:248-263. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1970.tb00007.x
Markus, H., Nurius, P. Possible selves: The interface between motivation and self-concept. In: K Yardley, T Honess (Eds.). Self and identity: Psychological perspectives. Suffolk: John Willey & Sons; 1987. Pp. 157-172.
Miller, B.W., Robers, G.C., Ommundsen, Y. Effect of perceived motivational climate on moral functioning, team moral atmosphere perceptions, and the legitimacy of intentionally injurious acts among competitive youth football players. Psych Sport Exer. 2005; 6:461-477. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2004.04.003
Mize, M. Cognitive development: The physical education connection. Teach Elem Phys Educ. 1991; 2(1):14-15.
Murray, M.C., Mann, B.L. Leadership effectiveness. In: JM Williams (Ed.). Applied sport psychology. 4th ed. Mountain View: Mayfield Publishing Company; 2001. Pp. 82-106.
National Federation of State High School Association. The case for high school activities. Retrieved 5 February 2004, from http://www.nfhs.org/case.htm, 2002.
National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Community programs to promote youth development. Washington: National Academy Press, 2002.
Noddings, N. Educating moral people. New York: Teachers College Press; 2002.
Paluska, S.A., Schwenk, T.L. Physical activity and mental health: Current concepts. Amer J Epid. 2000; 29:167-180. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200029030-00003
Park, N. The role of subjective well-being in positive youth development. Annals Amer Acad Pol Socl Sci. 2004; 59(1):25-39. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716203260078
Prager, K. Identity status, sex-role orientation, and self-esteem in late adolescent females. J Gen Psych. 1983; 143:159-167. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221325.1983.10533547
Proios, M., Balasas, D. Self-esteem as a moderator agent for the improvement of the adolescents' moral behavior. I J Phys Educ. 2007; 44(2):67-74.
Proios, M., Doganis, G., Athanailidis, I. Moral development and form of participation, type of sport, and sport experience. Perc Motor Skil. 2004; 99:633-642. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.99.2.633-642
Rawls, J. Justice as fairness: A restatement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2001.
Riemer, B.A., Beal, B., Schroeder, P. The influences of peer and university culture on female student athletes' perceptions of career termination, professionalization, and social isolation. J Sport Beh. 2000; 23:364-378.
Rogers, C.R. Client centered therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin; 1951.
Sage, G. Orientations towards sport of male and female intercollegiate athletes. J Sport Psych. 1980; 2:355-362. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.2.4.355
Sage, G. Orientations towards sport of male and female intercollegiate athletes. J Sport Psych J Phys Educ Recre Dance. 1998; 69(1):15-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.1998.10605041
Salonen, J.T., Pusk, P., Toumilehto, J. Physical activity and risk of myocardial infarction, celebral stroke and death: A longitudinal study in Eastern Finland. Amer J Epid. 1982; 115:526-537. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a113334
Scanlan, T.K., Carpenter, P., Schmidt, G., Simons, J., Keeler, B. An introduction to the sport commitment model. J Sport Exerc Psych. 1993; 15:1-15. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.15.1.1
Shields, D., Bredemeier, B. Character development and physical activity. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics; 1995.
Shields, D., Bredemeier, B. Moral development and behavior in sport. In: RN Singer, HA Hausenblas, CM Janelle (Eds.). Handbook of sport psychology. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley & Sons; 2001. Pp. 585-603.
Shogan, D. The making of high-performance athletes: Discipline, diversity, and ethics. Toronto: University of Toronto Press; 1999.
Stephens, T. Physical activity and mental health in the United States and Canada: Evidence from four population surveys. Prev Med. 1988; 17:35-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435(88)90070-9
Stevens, D.A. Movement concepts: Stimulating cognitive development in elementary students. J Phys Educ Recre Dance. 1994; 65(8):16-23. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.1994.10606977
Sullivan, H.S. The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton; 1953.
Telama, R. Moral development. In: YV Auweele, F Bakker, S Biddle, M Durand, R Seiler (Eds.). Psychology for physical educators. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 1999. Pp. 321-342.
Tsai, E. & Fung, L. Sportspersonship in youth basketball and volleyball players. Athl Ins. 2005; 51(4):37-46.
Wankel, L.M., Berger, B.G. The psychological and social benefits of sport and physical activity. J Leis Res. 1990; 22(2):176-182.
Webb, H. Professionalization of attitudes toward play among adolescents. In: GS Kenyon (Ed.). Sociology of sport. Chicago: The Athletic Institute; 1969.
Weinberg, R., Gould, D. Foundations of sport & exercise psychology. 3rd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2003.
Weiss, M.R., Smith, A.L. Moral development in sport and physical activity: Theory, research, and intervention. In: TS Horn (Ed.). Advances in sport psychology. 2nd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2002. Pp. 243-280.
Wigfield, A., Karpathian, M. Who am I and What can I do? Children's self-concepts and motivation in achievement situations. Educ Psych. 1991; 26:233-261. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.1991.9653134
Wright, A., Cote, J. Retrospective analysis of leadership development through sport. Sport Psych. 2003; 17:268-291. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.17.3.268
Young, J., Bursik, K. Identity development and life plan maturity: A comparison of women athletes and nonathletes. Sex Rol. 2000; 43:241-254. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007033031566
Copyright (c) 2010 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.