Distance as a control parameter for place kicking


  • Kristi Kay Mally Univeristy Wisconsin-La Crosse, United States
  • Rebecca A. Battista Appalachian State University, United States
  • Mary Ann Roberton Bowling Green State University, United States




Dynamic systems, Control parameters, Place kicking


Using a dynamic systems perspective, this study investigated whether distance functioned as a control parameter that might alter children's place kicking patterns.  Nineteen children (mean age = 8.1 years) kicked 3 times at each of 5 randomly ordered distances (1.524, 3.048, 6.096, 9.144, 12.192 meters). All kicks were videotaped. Results indicated that four movement features changed significantly as a result of the distance kicked. The features were number/type of forward steps in the approach, distance between the feet in the final foot position during approach, position of the shank in the forward leg swing, and leg action in the follow through. These results suggest that distance (or force) may be a control parameter that teachers could manipulate when helping children learn to place kick.


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How to Cite

Mally, K. K., Battista, R. A., & Roberton, M. A. (2011). Distance as a control parameter for place kicking. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 6(1), 122–134. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2011.61.14



Physical Education / Children & Exercise