Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Lipocalin-2: Response to a short-term treadmill protocol in obese and normal-weight men

Arsalan Damirchi, Farhad Rahmani-Nia, Javad Mehrabani



Background: Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) a newer adipocyte-secreted acute phase protein was recently reported to be correlated with potential effects in obesity and inflammation. The reactions of this protein in progressive exercise have not yet been evaluated. Purpose: This study was designed to compare of plasma Lcn2 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels after participating in a short-term treadmill protocol (STP) in obese and normal-weight men. Materials and methodology: In a STP, 9 obese (aged: 43.13±4.6 yrs and BMI: 31.36±1.6 kg/m2) and 9 normal-weight (aged: 42.88±4.4 yrs and BMI: 23.03±1.7 kg/m2; mean ± SD) sedentary men that have been selected randomly through volunteers, performed a stepwise maximal aerobic endurance with a treadmill Bruce protocol. Results: In prior to STP, Lcn2 level was higher in obese than normal-weight individuals. A significant increasing in Lcn2, hs-CRP, and white blood cells (WBC) levels were observed after STP in both of obese and normal-weight groups. Also, levels of Lcn2, hs-CRP and WBC were elevated in obese than normal-weight subjects after STP. Conclusion: It seems Lcn2 and other plasma inflammatory signs were elevated in obese and normal-weight men after participating in one exhaustive short-term exercise. These changes were considerable in obese men. 


Lipocalin 2; Vigorous exercise; Inflammation; Adiposity


Berggren, J.R., Hulver, M.W., Houmard, J.A. Fat as an endocrine organ: influence of exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2005; 99:757-764.

Borg, G.A.V. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1982; 14:377-381.

Bruce, R.A., Kusumi, F., Hosmer, D. Maximal oxygen intake and nomographic assessment of functional aerobic impairment in cardiovascular disease. Am Heart J. 1973; 85:546-562.

Bruunsgaard, H. The clinical impact of systemic low-level inflammation in elderly populations. Dan Med Bull. 2006; 53:285-309.

Cancello, R., Henegar, C., Viguerie, N., Taleb, S., Poitou, C., Rouault, C., Coupaye, M., Pelloux, V., Hugol, D., Bouillot, J.L., Bouloumié, A., Barbatelli, G., Cinti, S., Svensson, P.A., Barsh, G.S., Zucker, J.D., Basdevant, A., Langin, D., Clement, K. Reduction of macrophage infiltration and chemoattractant gene expression changes in white adipose tissue of morbidly obese subjects after surgery-induced weight loss. Diabetes. 2005; 54:2277-2286.

Choi, K.M., Kim, T.N., Yoo, H.J., Lee, K.W., Cho, G.J., Hwang, T.G., Baik, S.H., Choi, D.S., Kim, S.M. Effect of exercise training on A-FABP, lipocalin-2 and RBP4 levels in obese women. Clin Endocrin. 2009; 70:569-574.

Choi, K.M., Lee, J.S., Kim, E.J., Baik, S.H., Seo, H.S., Choi, D.S., Oh, D.J., Park, C.G. Implication of lipocalin-2 and visfatin levels in patients with coronary heart disease. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008; 158:203-207.

Ciolac, E.G., Guimaraes, G.V. Physical exercise and metabolic syndrome. Rev Bras Med Esporte. 2004; 10:325-330.

Cowland, J.B., Muta, T., Borregaard, N. IL-1β-specific upregulation of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is controlled by IkappaB-zeta. J Immunol. 2006; 176:5559-66.

Damirchi, A., Babaei, P., Arazi, H. Acute phase response of immune system to single and repeated bouts of selected exercise in a day. Thesis for the degree of doctor of sport physiology. 2008.

Esteve, E., Ricart, W., Fernández-Real, J.M. Adipocytokines and insulin resistance: the possible role of lipocalin-2, retinol binding protein-4, and adiponectin. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32(2):S362-S367.

Flo, T.H., Smith, K.D., Sato, S., Rodriguez, D.J., Holmes, M.A., Strong, R.K., Akira, S., Aderem, A. Lipocalin 2 mediates an innate immune response to bacterial infection by sequestrating iron. Nature. 2004; 432:917-921.

Mathur, N., Pedersen, B.K. Exercise as a mean to control low-grade systemic inflammation. Mediators Inflamm. 2008; 1-6.

Matthews, D.R., Hosker, J.P., Rudenski, A.S., Naylor, B.A., Treacher, D.F., Turner, R.C. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985; 28:412-419.

Mohebbi, H., Moghadasi, M., Rahmani-Nia, F., Hassan-Nia, S., Noroozi, H. Association among lifestyle status, plasma adiponectin level and metabolic syndrome in obese middle aged men. Br J Biomotricity. 2009; 3:243-252.

Nieman, D.C. Fitness and sports medicine: An introduction. Bull Publishing Company; 1990. Pp. 70-76.

Paczeck, B.C., Bartlomiejczyk, I., Gabrys, T., Przybylski, J., Nowak, M., Paczeck, L. Lack of relationship between interleukin-6 and CRP levels in healthy male athletes. Immonol Let. 2005; 99:136-140.

Pedersen, B.K., Steensberg, A., Fischer, C., Keller, C., Ostrowski, K., Schjerling, P. Exercise and cytokines with particular focus on muscle-derived IL-6. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2001; 7:18-31.

Petersen, A.M.W., Pedersen, B.K. The anti-inflammatory effect of exercise. J Appl Physiol. 2005; 98:1154-1162.

Ross, R. Atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340:115-126.

Sommer, G., Weise, S., Kralisch, S., Lossner, U., Bluher, M., Stumvoll, M., Fasshauer, M. Lipocalin-2 is induced by interleukin-1 β in murine adipocytes in vitro. J Cell Biochemistry. 2009; 106:103-108.

Suzuki, K., Nakaji, S., Yamada, M., Totsuka, M., Sato, K., Sugawara, K. Systemic inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise. Cytokine kinetics. Exerc Immunol Rev. 2002; 8:6-48.

Suzuki, K., Yamada, M., Kurakake, S., Okamura, N., Yamaya, K., Liu, Q., Kudoh, S., Kowatari, K., Nakaji, S., Sugawara, K. Circulating cytokines and hormones with immunosuppressive but neutrophil-priming potentials rise after endurance exercise in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000; 81:281-287.

Tan, B., Adya, R., Iaoye, X., Syed, F., Lewandowski, K.C., O'hare, J.P., Randeva, H. Ex vivo and in vivo regulation of Lipocalin-2, a novel adipokine, by Insulin. Diabetes Care. 2009; 32:129-131.

Tataranni, P.A., Ortega, E. A burning question: does an adipokineinduced activation of the immune system mediate the effect of overnutrition on type 2 diabetes? Diabetes. 2005; 54:917-927.

Vandam, R.M., Hu, F.B. Lipocalins and insulin resistance: etiological role of retinol-binding protein 4 and lipocalin-2? Clin Chem. 2007; 53(1):5-7.

Wang, Y., Lam, K.S.L., Kraegen, E.W., Sweeney, G., Zhang, J., Tso, A.W.K., Chow, W.S., Wat, N.M.S., Xu, J.Y., Hoo, R.L.C., Xu, A. Lipocalin-2 is an inflammatory marker closely associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia in humans. Clin Chem. 2007; 53(1):34-41.

Yan, Q.W., Yang, Q., Mody, N., Graham, T.E., Hsu, C.H., Xu, Z., Houstis, N.E., Kahn, B.B., Rosen, E.D. The adipokine lipocalin 2 is regulated by obesity and promotes insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2007; 6(10):2533-2540.

Zhang, J., Wu, Y., Zhang, Y., Leroith, D., Bernlohr, D.A., Chen, X. The role of lipocalin 2 in the regulation of inflammation in adipocytes and macrophages. Molec Endocrin. 2008; 22(6):1416-1426.


Copyright (c) 2011 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.