Maximal fat oxidation at the different exercise intensity in obese and normal weight men in the morning and evening

Hamid Mohebbi, Mohammad Azizi

Abstract

Introduction: Circadian rhythms regulate some metabolic and hormonal variables that affect fat oxidation rates. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate Maximal fat oxidation (MFO) at a different exercise intensity in obese and normal weight men in the morning and evening. Methods: MFO was measured in 12 normal weight (BMI 20-25 kg/m2; VO2max 45.7±3.44 ml/min/kg) and 10 obese (BMI >30 kg/m2; VO2max 37.2±3.6 ml/min/kg) men during incremental running exercise test with 3 min stages on the treadmill by indirect calorimetry method. Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA with repeated measures were used to analysis variables. Results: We found that fat oxidation rates and energy expenditure in both groups in the evening were higher than morning; there were no significant differences in MFO between obese and normal groups. Furthermore, the fat oxidation rate in low intensity exercise (2max) was similar in obese and normal weight groups, but in high exercise intensities, in normal weight men were significantly higher than obese men. Conclusion: Our results suggest that independent of exercise intensity and body fat mass, exercising in the evening is more effective on fat oxidation and decrease body fat mass; therefore, it is better for weight loss purposes in obese and normal weight men.


Keywords

Maximal fat oxidation; Time of a day; Obese and normal weight men

References

Achten, J., Gleeson, M., Jeukendrup, A.E. Determination of the exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002; 34:92-97. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200201000-00015

Achten, J., Jeukendrup, A.E. Maximal fat oxidation during exercise in trained man. Int J Sports Med. 2003; 24:603-608. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-43265

Ayako, S., Keiichi, M. Circadian Rhythm of Catecholamine Excretion in Rats after Phase Shift of Light-Dark Cycle. Ind Health. 1995; 33:57-66. https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.33.57

Bergman, C.B., Brooks, G.A. Respiratory gas-exchange ratios during graded exercise in fed and fasted trained and untrained men, J Appl Physiol. 1999; 86:479-487.

De’Riaz, O., Dumont, M., Bergeron, N., Despre, J.P., Brochu, M., Prud'homme, D. Skeletal muscle low attenuation area and maximal fat oxidation rate during submaximal exercise in male obese individuals. Int J Obesity. 2001; 25; 1579–1584. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0801809

Ellen, E., Wim, H. Substrate oxidation, obesity and exercise training. Research clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2002; 14:667-678. https://doi.org/10.1053/beem.2002.0226

Frayn, K.N. Calculation of substrate oxidation rates in vivo from gaseous exchange. J Appl Physiol. 1983; 55:628-634.

Froy, O. Metabolism and Circadian Rhythms—Implications for Obesity. The Endocrine Society, 2010; 30:1-30. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2009-0014

Garet, W.E., Kirkendall, D.T. Exercise and sport science. Champaign, IL: Human kinetics.1999; 351-371.

Goodpaster, B.H., Robert, R., Wolf, D., Kelley, E. Effect of obesity on substrate utilization during exercise. Obes Res. 2002; 10: 575-584. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2002.78

Goo, R.H., Moore, J.H., Greenberg, E., Alazraki, N.P. Circadian variation in gastric emptying of meals in man. Gastroenterology. 1987; 93: 515-518. https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-5085(87)90913-9

Hill, D.W., Borden, D.O., Darnaby, K.M., Hendricks, D.N., Hill, C.M. Effect of time of day on aerobic and anaerobic responses to high-intensity exercise. Can J Sport Sci. 1992; 17:316-319.

Hill, D.W. Effect of time of day on aerobic power in exhaustive high-intensity exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1996; 36:155-160.

Kanaley, J.A., Weltman, J.Y., Pieper, K.S., Weltman, A., Hartman, M.L. Cortisol and growth hormone responses to exercise at different times of day. J of Clin Endocrinol & Metab. 2001; 86:2881-2889. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.86.6.2881

Knechtle, B., Muller, G., Willmann, F., Kotteck, K., Eser, P., Knecht, H. Fat oxidation in men and women endurance athletes in running and cycling. Int J Sports Med. 2004; 25:38–44. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-45232

Lazzer, S., Carlo, B., Fiorenza, A., Alessandra, D., Renzo, P., Alessandro, S. Optimizing fat oxidation through exercise in severely obese Caucasian adolescents. Clin Endocrinol. 2007; 67:582–588. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2007.02929.x

Rahmani-Nia, F., Mohebi, H., Azizi, M. Effect of circadin rhythm on cortisol responses and energy expenditure in obese vs. lean men. Olympic Journal. 2009; 48:113-123.

Ranneries, C., Bülow, J., Buemann, B., Christensen, N.J., Madsen, J., Astrup, A. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women. Am J Physiol.1998; 274:155-161.

Souissi, N., Gauthier, A., Sesboüé, B., Larue, J., Davenne, D. Circadian rhythms in two types of anaerobic cycle leg exercise: force-velocity and 30-s Wingate tests. Int J Sports Med. 2004; 25: 14-19. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-45226

Steffan, H.G., Elliott, W., Miller, W.E., Fernhall, B. Substrate utilization during submaximal exercise in obese and normal-weight women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1999; 80:229-333.

Thompson, D.L., Townsend, K.M., Boughey, R., Patterson, K., Basset, D.R. Substrate use during and following moderate- and low-intensity exercise: implications for weight control. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1998; 78:43-49. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050385

Thuma, J.R., Gilders, R., Verdun, M., Loucks, A.B. Circadian rhythm of Cortisol confounds Cortisol responses to exercise: implications for future research. J Appl Physiol. 1995; 78:1657-1664.

Venables, M.C., Achten, J., Jeukendrup, A.E. Determinants of fat oxidation during exercise in healthy men and women: a cross-sectional study. J Appl Physiol. 2005; 98:160–167. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00662.2003

Van Loon, L.J., Jeukendrup, A.E., Saris, W.H., Wagenmakers, A.J. Effect of training status on fuel selection during submaximal exercise with glucose ingestion. J Appl Physiol. 1999; 87:1413–1420.

Wade, A.J., Marbut, M.M., Round, J.M. Muscle fiber type and aetiology of obesity. Lancet. 1990; 335:805-808. https://doi.org/10.1016/0140-6736(90)90933-V

Weinert, D., Waterhouse, J. The circadian rhythm of core temperature: Effects of physical activity and aging, Physiology & Behavior. 2007; 90:246–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.09.003

Yujiro, Y., Ken-Ichi, H., Satoko, H., Nana, T., Toshihiko, M., Sato, H. Effects of physical exercise on human circadian rhythms. Sleep and Biological Rhythms. 2006; 4:199–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1479-8425.2006.00234.x




DOI: https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2011.61.06