The necessity of considering the challenges facing Olympic Movement
Keywords:Olympic, Games, Threats
From the beginning that the modern Olympic Games formed, Coubertin had decide to establish and governance of amateurism in the Olympic Games. He always tried to keep Olympics Games far from issues such as professionalism in sport, issues and political tensions, seeking power of some countries, racism and political supremacy. So, by studying problems that threatens Olympic movement, can step important pace to identify the main objectives and Olympic ideals more accurately and give proper strategy to deal with these problems to withdraw its advance. In this present study we evaluate problems that threatening Olympic movement. The method used in this study is historical. So by using the documentary papers, magazines and internet, we evaluate the main problems of the Olympic movement with its details. Because the method used in this study is documentary and library-style, so it hasn't statistical population and sample. Also the research materials was articles, internet and thesis and etc. that has been done by studying sheets, classification, formulation and analyzing the data content. Finally we can say perhaps because of far away from the Olympic ideals, caused to today's threats. So by approach to those aims that was due to founders thought, Olympic movement would be saving.
Airia, J., Bahram, A. The History of physical education, Fani-Mohandesi University; 1364.
Behmanesh, A. Olympic Games, Tehran, Ketabsara; 1366.
Chalip, L. The evaluate of the modern Olympic Games & Pierre de Coubertin, 31st session, international Olympic Academy (IOA), 16th – 13th; July 1991.
Chu, M. Olympic movement to eard the modern society of the 21th century, IOA, august 1994.
Dacosta, L. The central problems of olympism. 34th session, IAO. August 1992a.
Dacosta, L. The Central problems of Olympic in the face of the constraints of commercialization and possible solution. 32th session, IAO; 77-84. July 1992b.
Gills, B. International Olympic committee Award. Diffusion. 2005; (2):15-23
Haig, G. The components of the Olympic movement. 35th session, IAO; July 1995.
Heinemann, K. The economic impact of Olympic Games. 31th session, IAO; July 1992.
International Olympic Committee Ethics Commission's Mission. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympic-Athletes/
International Olympic Committee Ethics Commission's Rules. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Sports/
International Olympic Committee Ethics Commission's Statutes. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/Olympism-in-Action/
International Olympic Committee Ethics Commission's Statutes. http://www.olympic.org/en/content/countries
Johnson, W.C. Using evacuation simulations for contingency planning to enhance the security and safety of the 2012 Olympic venues. Safety Science. 2008; (46):302-322. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.05.008
Lekarska, N. From amateurism to professionalism, 1th session, IAO. May 1992; 20-27.
Lynn, H. The Olympic dream, 31th session, IAO. July 1992.
Magdeleine, Y. New Political, Economic, Social & Organizational aspects of the Olympic movement. 34th session, IAO. August 1994.
Pleket, H. The Olympic games & their decline, 1th session, IAO. May 1992; 20-27.
Sajadi, N. The History of 100 years of Olympic Movement. Tehran: Noor; 1379.
Sajadi, N. Teaching of Olympic Movement. Tehran: National Olympic Committee; 1385
Shantz, O. Olympic ideals & the history of the Olympic Games, 6th International Postgraduate seminary on Olympic Games. IAO. Olympic; 1998.
Schneider, J.A. Olympic reform, are we there yet? Fifth International Symposium for Olympic Research, the OATH Report. 1999; 225-232.
Sharp, T., Brennan, R., Mark, K., Williams, J., Eitzen, E. & Lillibridge, S. Medical preparedness for a terrorist incident involving Chemical and Biological agents during the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. Original Research Article Annals of Emergency Medicin. 1998; 32(2).214-223.
Sِnksen, P. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) and GH-2000. Growth Hormone & IGF Research. 2009; (19):341-345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2009.04.015
Spyridaki, M.H., Kiousi, P.A., Vonaparti, P., Valavani, V., Zonaras, M., Zahariou, E., Et Al. Doping control analysis in human urine by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry for the Olympic Games Athens: Determination of corticosteroids and quantification of ephedrines, salbutamol and morphine. Analytica Chimica Acta. 2004; 573-574 (2006):242-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.04.042
Young, D. A new history of the modern Olympic revival. 34th session, IAO. May 1992.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2011 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.