Physiological requirements in triathlon

Grégoire P. Millet, Veronica E. Vleck, David J. Bentley

Abstract

This article aims to present the current knowledge on physiological requirements in Olympic distance and Ironman triathlon. Showing the data available from a "traditional point of view" (aerobic power, anaerobic threshold, heart rate, running economy) and from a "contemporary" point of view (V̇O2 kinetics), it emphasises where we are currently and the areas that remain unknown.


Keywords

Maximal aerobic power; Anaerobic threshold; Heart rate; Running economy; VO2 kinetics; Olympic distance; Ironman

References

Albrecht, T.L., Foster, V.L., Dickinson, A.L. Triathletes: exercise parameters measured during bicycle, swim bench, and treadmill testing. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1986; 18:86. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198604001-00426

Basset, F., Boulay, M.R. Treadmill and cycle ergometer tests are interchangeable to monitor triathletes annual training. J Sports Sci Med. 2003; 2(3):110-6.

Basset, F.A., Boulay, M.R. Specificity of treadmill and cycle ergometer tests in triathletes, runners and cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000; 81(3):214-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050033

Bassett, D.R., Jr., Howley, E.T. Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000; 32(1):70-84. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200001000-00012

Bernard, T., Vercruyssen, F., Grego, F., Hausswirth, C., Lepers, R., Vallier, J.M., Et Al. Effect of cycling cadence on subsequent 3 km running performance in well trained triathletes. Br J Sports Med. 2000; 37(2):154-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.37.2.154

Billat, V., Lepretre, P.M., Heugas, A.M., Laurence, M.H., Salim, D., Koralsztein, J.P. Training and bioenergetic characteristics in elite male and female Kenyan runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35(2):297-304. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000053556.59992.A9

Billat, V.L., Demarle, A., Slawinski, J., Paiva, M., Koralsztein, J.P. Physical and training characteristics of top-class marathon runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 ; 33(12) :2089-97. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200112000-00018

Billat, V.L., Mille-Hamard, L., Petit, B., Koralsztein, J.P. The role of cadence on the VO2 slow component in cycling and running in triathletes. Int J Sports Med. 1999; 20(7):429-37. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-1999-8825

Boone, T., Kreider, R.B. Bicycle exercise before running: effect on performance. Ann Sports Med. 1986; 3 :25-9.

Boussana, A., Hue, O., Hayot, M., Matecki, S., Ramonatxo, M., Le Gallais, D. Capacité de diffusion pulmonaire avant un triathlon et 24 heures après la compétition. Science & Sports. 2000; 15:245-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0765-1597(00)80035-0

Boussana, A., Matecki, S., Galy, O., Hue, O., Ramonatxo, M., Le Gallais, D. The effect of exercise modality on respiratory muscle performance in triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001; 33(12):2036-43. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200112000-00010

Burnley, M., Jones, A.M. Oxygen uptake kinetics as a determinant of sports performance. Eur J Sport Sci. 2007; 7(2):63-79. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390701456148

Butts, N.K., Henry, B.A., Mclean, D. Correlations between VO2max and performance times of recreational triathletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1991; 31(3):339-44.

Caillaud, C., Serre-Cousine, O., Anselme, F., Capdevilla, X., Prefaut, C. Computerized tomography and pulmonary diffusing capacity in highly trained athletes after performing a triathlon. J Appl Physiol. 1995; 79(4):1226-32.

Caputo, F., Denadai, B.S. Effects of aerobic endurance training status and specificity on oxygen uptake kinetics during maximal exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol O. 2004; 93(1-2):87-95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1169-3

Carter, H., Jones, A.M., Barstow, T.J., Burnley, M., Williams, C., Doust, J.H. Effect of endurance training on oxygen uptake kinetics during treadmill running. J Appl Physiol. 2000; 89(5):1744-52.

Carter, H., Jones, A.M., Barstow, T.J., Burnley, M., Williams, C.A., Doust, J.H. Oxygen uptake kinetics in treadmill running and cycle ergometry: a comparison. J Appl Physiol. 2000; 89(3):899-907.

Chapman, A.R., Vicenzino, B., Blanch, P., Hodges, P.W. Is running less skilled in triathletes than runners matched for running training history? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008; 40(3):557-65. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31815e727a

Chatard, J.C., Chollet, D., Millet, G. Performance and drag during drafting swimming in highly trained triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998, 30(8):1276-80. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199808000-00015

Chollet, D., Hue, O., Auclair, F., Millet, G., Chatard, J.C. The effects of drafting on stroking variations during swimming in elite male triathletes. Eur J Appl Physiol O. 2000; 82(5-6):413-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210000233

Conley, D.L., Krahenbuhl, G.S., Burkett, L.N., Millar, A.N. Following Steve Scott: Physiological changes accompanying training. Phys Sports Med. 1984; 12(103-106). https://doi.org/10.1080/00913847.1984.11701746

Coyle, E.F. Integration of the physiological factors determining endurance performance ability. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1995; 23:25-63. https://doi.org/10.1249/00003677-199500230-00004

Danner, T., Plowman, S.A. Running economy following an intense cycling bout in female duathletes and triathletes. WSPAJ. 1995; 3(1):29-39. https://doi.org/10.1123/wspaj.4.1.29

Davis, J.A., Vodak, P., Wilmore, J.H., Vodak, J., Kurtz, P. Anaerobic threshold and maximal aerobic power for three modes of exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1976, 41(4):544-50.

De Vito, G., Bernardi, M., Sproviero, E., Figura, F. Decrease of endurance performance during Olympic Triathlon. Int J Sports Med. 1995, 16(1):24-8. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-972958

Deitrick, R.W. Physiological responses of typical versus heavy weight triathletes to treadmill and bicycle exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness.1991; 31:367-75.

Delextrat, A., Tricot, V., Bernard, T., Vercruyssen, F., Hausswirth, C., Brisswalter, J. Drafting during swimming improves efficiency during subsequent cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003; 35(9):1612-9. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000084422.49491.2C

Dengel, D.R., Flynn, M.G., Costill, D.L., Kirwan, J.P. Determinants of success during triathlon competition. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1989; 60(3):234-8. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1989.10607445

Derman, K.D., Hawley, J.A., Noakes, T.D., Dennis, S.C. Fuel kinetics during intense running and cycling when fed carbohydrate. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996; 74(1-2):36-43. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00376492

Di Prampero, P.E., Atchou, G., Bruckner, J.C., Moia, C. The energetics of endurance running. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1986; 55(3):259-66. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02343797

Farber, H., Arbetter, J., Schaefer, E., Hill, S., Dallal, G. Acute metabolic effects of an endurance triathlon. Annals of Sports Medecine. 1987; 3(2):131-8.

Farber, H.W., Schaefer, E.J., Franey, R., Grimaldi, R., Hill, N.S. The endurance triathlon: metabolic changes after each event and during recovery. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991; 23(8):959-65. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199108000-00013

Fernhall, B., Kohrt, W. The effect of training specificity on maximal and submaximal physiological responses to treadmill and cycle ergometry. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1990; 30(3):268-75.

Flynn, M.G., Costill, D.L., Kirwan, J.P., Fink, W.J., Dengel, D.R. Muscle fiber composition and respiratory capacity in triathletes. Int J Sports Med. 1987 ; 8(6) :383-6. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1025690

Galy, O., Hue, O., Boussana, A., Peyreigne, C., Couret, I., Le Gallais, D., Et Al. Effects of the order of running and cycling of similar intensity and duration on pulmonary diffusing capacity in triathletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003; 90(5-6):489-95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-003-0900-9

Galy, O., Manetta, J., Coste, O., Maimoun, L., Chamari, K., Hue, O. Maximal oxygen uptake and power of lower limbs during a competitive season in triathletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2003; 13(3):185-93. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2003.10170.x

Gilman, M.B. The use of heart rate to monitor the intensity of endurance training. Sports Med. 1996; 21(2):73-9. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199621020-00001

Guezennec, C.Y., Vallier, J.M., Bigard, A.X., Durey, A. Increase in energy cost of running at the end of a triathlon. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996; 73(5):440-5. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00334421

Hausswirth, C., Bigard, A.X., Berthelot, M., Thomaidis, M., Guezennec, C.Y. Variability in energy cost of running at the end of a triathlon and a marathon. Int J Sports Med. 1996; 17(8):572-9. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-972897

Hausswirth, C., Bigard, A.X., Guezennec, C.Y. Relationships between running mechanics and energy cost of running at the end of a triathlon and a marathon. Int J Sports Med. 1997; 18(5) :330-9. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-972642

Hausswirth, C., Bigard, A.X., Le Chevalier, J.M. The Cosmed K4 telemetry system as an accurate device for oxygen uptake measurements during exercise. Int J Sports Med. 1997; 18(6):449-53. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-972662

Hausswirth, C., Brisswalter, J., Vallier, J.M., Smith, D., Lepers, R. Evolution of electromyographic signal, running economy, and perceived exertion during different prolonged exercises. Int J Sports Med. 2000; 21(6):429-36. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-3832

Hausswirth, C., Lehenaff, D. Physiological demands of running during long distance runs and triathlons. Sports Med. 2001; 31(9):679-89. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200131090-00004

Hausswirth, C., Vallier, J., Lehenaff, D., Brisswalter, J., Smith, D., Millet, G., Et Al. Effect of two drafting modalities in cycling on running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001; 33:485-92. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200103000-00023

Hausswirth, C., Vallier, J., Lehenaff, D., Smith, D., Millet, G., Dreano, P., Et Al. Effect of alternate or continuous sheltered position in cycling on the consecutive running. VIII ACAPS international congress. 2000; 176-7.

Hill, N.S., Jacoby, C., Farber, H.W. Effect of an endurance triathlon on pulmonary function. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1991; 23(11):1260-4. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199111000-00010

Holly, R.G., Barnard, R.J., Rosenthal, M., Applegate, E., Pritikin, N. Triathlete characterization and response to prolonged strenuous competition. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1986; 18(1):123-7. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198602000-00020

Hue, O., Galy, O., Le Gallais, D., Prefaut, C. Pulmonary responses during the cycle-run succession in elite and competitive triathletes. Can J Appl Physiol. 2001; 26(6):559-73. https://doi.org/10.1139/h01-031

Hue, O., Le Gallais, D., Boussana, A., Chollet, D., Prefaut, C. Performance level and cardiopulmonary responses during a cycle-run trial. Int J Sports Med. 2000; 21(4):250-5. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-8883

Hue, O., Le Gallais, D., Boussana, A., Chollet, D., Prefaut, C. Ventilatory responses during experimental cycle-run transition in triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 ; 31(10) :1422-8. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199910000-00010

Hue, O., Le Gallais, D., Boussana, A., Galy, O., Chamari, K., Mercier, B., Et Al. Catecholamine, blood lactate and ventilatory responses to multi-cycle-run blocks. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000; 32(9) :1582-6. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200009000-00009

Hue, O., Le Gallais, D., Chollet, D., Boussana, A., Prefaut, C. The influence of prior cycling on biomechanical and cardiorespiratory response profiles during running in triathletes. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1998; 77(1-2):98-105. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050306

Hue, O., Le Gallais, D., Chollet, D., Prefaut, C. Ventilatory threshold and maximal oxygen uptake in present triathletes. Can J Appl Physiol. 2000; 25(2):102-13. https://doi.org/10.1139/h00-007

Hue, O., Le Gallais, D., Prefaut, C. Specific pulmonary responses during the cycle-run succession in triathletes. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2001; 11(6):355-61. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2001.110607.x

Ingham, S.A., Carter, H., Whyte, G.P., Doust, J.H. Comparison of the oxygen uptake kinetics of club and olympic champion rowers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007; 39(5):865-71. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31803350c7

Jacobs, I., Sjodin, B. Relationship of ergometer-specific VO2 max and muscle enzymes to blood lactate during submaximal exercise. Br J Sports Med. 1985; 19(2):77-80. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.19.2.77

Jones, A.M. The physiology of the World record holder for the Women's marathon. Int J Sports Sci Coach. 2006; 1(2):101-15. https://doi.org/10.1260/174795406777641258

Joyner, M.J., Coyle, E.F. Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions. J Physiol. 2008; 586(1) :35-44. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2007.143834

Kerr, C.G., Trappe, T.A., Starling, R.D., Trappe, S.W. Hyperthermia during Olympic triathlon: influence of body heat storage during the swimming stage. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998 Jan;30(1):99-104. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199801000-00014

Kilding, A.E., Fysh, M., Winter, E.M. Relationships between pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and other measures of aerobic fitness in middle- and long-distance runners. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007; 100(1):105-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0413-z

Kohrt, W.M., Morgan, D.W., Bates, B., Skinner, J.S. Physiological responses of triathletes to maximal swimming, cycling, and running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1987; 19(1):51-5. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198702000-00011

Kohrt, W.M., O'connor, J.S., Skinner, J.S. Longitudinal assessment of responses by triathletes to swimming, cycling, and running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989; 21(5):569-75. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198910000-00012

Kreider, R.B., Boone, T., Thompson, W.R., Burkes, S., Cortes, C.W. Cardiovascular and thermal responses of triathlon performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1988; 20(4):385-90. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198808000-00010

Kreider, R.B. Ventilatory threshold in swimming, cycling and running in triathletes. Int J Sports Med. 1988; 9:147-8.

Laurenson, N.M., Fulcher, K.Y., Korkia, P. Physiological characteristics of elite and club level female triathletes during running. Int J Sports Med. 1993; 14(8):455-9. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1021210

Leake, C.N., Carter, J.E. Comparison of body composition and somatotype of trained female triathletes. J Sports Scie. 1991; 9(2):125-35. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419108729874

Loftin, M., Warren, B.L., Zingraf, S., Brandon, J.E., Skudlt, A., Scully, B. Peak physiological function and performance of recreational triathletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1988; 28(4):330-5.

Loy, S.F., Hoffmann, J.J., Holland, G.J. Benefits and practical use of cross-training in sports. Sports Med. 1995; 19(1):1-8. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199519010-00001

Lucia, A., Esteve-Lanao, J., Olivan, J., Gomez-Gallego, F., San Juan, A.F., Santiago, C., Et Al. Physiological characteristics of the best Eritrean runners-exceptional running economy. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006; 31(5):530-40. https://doi.org/10.1139/h06-029

Lucia, A., Olivan, J., Bravo, J., Gonzalez-Freire, M., Foster, C. The key to top-level endurance running performance: A unique example. Br J Sports Med. 2007; 29. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2007.040725

Margaritis, I., Tessier, F., Verdera, F., Bermon, S., Marconnet, P. Muscle enzyme release does not predict muscle function impairment after triathlon. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1999; 39(2):133-9.

Massimino, F.A., Armstrong, M.A., O'Toole, M.L., Hiller, W.D., Lair, R.H. Common Triathlon Injuries: Special Considerations For Multisport Training. Annals of Sports Medicine. 1988; 4(2):82-6.

Medelli, J., Maingourd, Y., Bouferrache, B., Bach, V., Freville, M., Libert, J.P. Maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic-anaerobic transition on treadmill and bicycle in triathletes. Jpn J Physiol. 1993; 43(3):347-60. https://doi.org/10.2170/jjphysiol.43.347

Millard-Stafford, M., Sparling, P.B., Rosskopf, L.B., Hinson, B.T., Dicarlo, L.J. Carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement during a simulated triathlon in the heat. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990; 22(5):621-8. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199010000-00013

Millet, G.P., Bentley, D.J. The physiological responses to running after cycling in elite junior and senior triathletes. Int J Sports Med. 2004; 25(3) :191-7. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-45259

Millet, G.P., Candau, R.B., Barbier, B., Busso, T., Rouillon, J.D., Chatard, J.C. Modelling the transfers of training effects on performance in elite triathletes. Int J Sports Med. 2002; 23(1):55-63. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2002-19276

Millet, G.P., Dreano, P., Bentley, D.J. Physiological characteristics of elite short- and long-distance triathletes. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003; 88(4-5):427-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0731-0

Millet, G.P., Jaouen, B., Borrani, F., Candau, R. Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO(2) kinetics. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002; 34(8):1351-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200208000-00018

Millet, G.P., Millet, G.Y., Candau, R.B. Duration and seriousness of running mechanics alterations after maximal cycling in triathletes. Influence of the performance level. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2001; 41(2):147-53.

Millet, G.P., Millet, G.Y., Hofmann, M.D., Candau, R.B. Alterations in running economy and mechanics after maximal cycling in triathletes: influence of performance level. Int J Sports Med. 2000; 21(2):127-32. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2000-8866

Millet, G.P., Vleck, V.E., Bentley, D.J. Physiological differences between cycling and running: lessons from triathletes. Sports Med. 2009;39(3):179-206. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200939030-00002

Millet, G.P., Vleck, V.E. Physiological and biomechanical adaptations to the cycle to run transition in Olympic triathlon: review and practical recommendations for training. Br J Sports Med. 2000; 34(5):384-90. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.34.5.384

Miura, H., Ishiko, T. Cardiorespiratory responses during a simulated triathlon. International council for health, physical education and recreation (ICHPER) 36th World Congress; 1993; Yokohama, Japan; 1993; 157-61.

Miura, H., Kitagawa, K., Ishiko, T., Matsui, N. Characteristics of VO2max and ventilatory threshold in triathletes. Jpn J Exerc Sports Physiol. 1994; 1(1):99-106.

Miura, H., Kitagawa, K., Ishiko, T. Characteristic feature of oxygen cost at simulated laboratory triathlon test in trained triathletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1999; 39(2):101-6.

Miura, H., Kitagawa, K., Ishiko, T. Economy during a simulated laboratory test triathlon is highly related to Olympic distance triathlon. Int J Sports Med. 1997; 18(4):276-80. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-972633

Moreira-Da-Costa, M., Russo, A.K., Picarro, I.C., Silva, A.C., Leite-De-Barros-Neto, T., Tarasantchi, J., Et Al. Maximal oxygen uptake during exercise using trained or untrained muscles. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1984; 17(2):197-202.

Murdoch, S.D., Bazzarre, T.L., Snider, I.P., Goldfarb, A.H. Differences in the effects of carbohydrate food form on endurance performance to exhaustion. Int J Sport Nutr. 1993 Mar; 3(1):41-54. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsn.3.1.41

O'toole, M., Hiller, W.D.B., Douglas, P.S. Cardiovascular responses to prolonged cycling and running. Ann Sports Med. 1987; 3:124-30

O'toole, M.L., Douglas, P.S., Hiller, W.D. Use of heart rate monitors by endurance athletes: lessons from triathletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1998; 38(3):181-7.

O'toole, M.L., Douglas, P.S. Applied physiology of triathlon. Sports Med. 1995; 19(4):251-67. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199519040-00003

O'toole, M.L., Hiller, D.B., Crosby, L.O., Douglas, P.S. The ultraendurance triathlete: a physiological profile. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1987; 19(1):45-50.

Palazzetti, S., Margaritis, I., Guezennec, C.Y. Swimming and cycling overloaded training in triathlon has no effect on running kinematics and economy. Int J Sport Med. 2005; 26(3):193-9. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-817923

Pechar, G.S., Mcardle, W.D., Katch, F.I., Magel, J.R., Deluca, J. Specificity of Cardiorespiratory Adaptation To Bicycle And Treadmill Training. J Appl Physiol. 1974; 36(6):753-6.

Rehrer, N.J., Brouns, F., Beckers, E.J., Ten Hoor, F., Saris, W.H. Gastric emptying with repeated drinking during running and bicycling. Int J Sports Med. 1990; 11(3):238-43. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1024799

Rehrer, N.J., Van Kemenade, M., Meester, W., Brouns, F., Saris, W.H. Gastrointestinal complaints in relation to dietary intake in triathletes. Int J Sport Nutr. 1992; 2(1):48-59. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsn.2.1.48

Reis, J.F., Millet, G.P., Malatesta, D., Roels, B., Borrani, F., Vleck, V.E., Et Al. Are oxygen uptake kinetics modified when using a respiratory snorkel? Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010; 5(3):292-300. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.3.292

Roalstad, M.S. Physiologic testing of the ultraendurance triathlete. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1989; 21: S200-4. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198910001-00013

Roberts, A., Mcelligott, M. The relationship between strength and endurance in female triathletes. NSRC Scientific Report. University of Canberra, AUS; 1995.

Roecker, K., Striegel, H., Dickhuth, H.H. Heart-rate recommendations: transfer between running and cycling exercise? Int J Sports Med. 2003; 24(3):173-8. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-39087

Rowbottom, D.G., Keast, D., Garcia-Webb, P., Morton, A.R. Training adaptation and biological changes among well-trained male triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1997; 29(9):1233-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199709000-00017

Ruby, B., Robergs, R., Leadbetter, G., Mermier, C., Chick, T., Stark, D. Cross-training between cycling and running in untrained females. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1996; 36(4):246-54.

Sagnol, M., Claustre, J., Cottet-Emard, J.M., Pequignot, J.M., Fellmann, N., Coudert, J., Et Al. Plasma free and sulphated catecholamines after ultra-long exercise and recovery. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1990; 60(2):91-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00846027

Saltin, B., Kim, C.K., Terrados, N., Larsen, H., Svedenhag, J., Rolf, C.J. Morphology, enzyme activities and buffer capacity in leg muscles of Kenyan and Scandinavian runners. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1995; 5(4):222-30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.1995.tb00038.x

Saltin, B., Larsen, H., Terrados, N., Bangsbo, J., Bak, T., Kim, C.K., Et Al. Aerobic exercise capacity at sea level and at altitude in Kenyan boys, junior and senior runners compared with Scandinavian runners. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1995; 5(4):209-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.1995.tb00037.x

Schabort, E.J., Killian, S.C., St Clair Gibson, A., Hawley, J.A., Noakes, T.D. Prediction of triathlon race time from laboratory testing in national triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000 Apr; 32(4):844-9. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200004000-00018

Schneider, D.A., Lacroix, K.A., Atkinson, G.R., Troped, P.J., Pollack, J. Ventilatory threshold and maximal oxygen uptake during cycling and running in triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1990; 22(2):257-64.

Schneider, D.A., Pollack, J. Ventilatory threshold and maximal oxygen uptake during cycling and running in female triathletes. Int J Sports Med. 1991; 12(4):379-83. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1024698

Sleivert, G.G., Rowlands, D.S. Physical and physiological factors associated with success in the triathlon. Sports Med. 1996; 22(1):8-18. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199622010-00002

Sleivert, G.G., Wenger, H.A. Physiological predictors of short-course triathlon performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993; 25(7):871-6. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199307000-00017

Stein, T.P., Hoyt, R.W., Toole, M.O., Leskiw, M.J., Schluter, M.D., Wolfe, R.R., Et Al. Protein and energy metabolism during prolonged exercise in trained athletes. Int J Sports Med. 1989; 10(5):311-6. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1024920

Tanaka, H. Effects of cross-training. Transfer of training effects on VO2max between cycling, running and swimming. Sports Med. 1994; 18(5):330-9. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199418050-00005

Toraa, M., Friemel, F. Fatigue of the respiratory muscles due to maximal exercise on 2 different ergometers. Can J Appl Physiol. 2000; 25(2):87-101. https://doi.org/10.1139/h00-006

Toraa, M., Pouillard, F., Merlet, P., Friemel, F. Cardiac hypertrophy and coronary reserve in endurance athletes. Can J Appl Physiol. 1999; 24(1):87-95.

Tschakovsky, M.E., Hughson, R.L. Interaction of factors determining oxygen uptake at the onset of exercise. J Appl Physiol. 1999; 86(4):1101-13.

Vercruyssen, F., Brisswalter, J., Hausswirth, C., Bernard, T., Bernard, O., Vallier, J.M. Influence of cycling cadence on subsequent running performance in triathletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002; 34(3):530-6. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200203000-00022

Vercruyssen, F., Suriano, R., Bishop, D., Hausswirth, C., Brisswalter, J. Cadence selection affects metabolic responses during cycling and subsequent running time to fatigue. Br J Sports Med. 2005; 39(5):267-72. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2004.011668

Vleck, V.E., Bentley, D.J., Millet, G.P., Cochrane, T. Triathlon event distance specialization: training and injury effects. J Strength Cond Res. 2010; 24(1):30-6. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181bd4cc8

Vleck, V.E., Garbutt, G. Injury and Training Characteristics of Male Elite, Development Squad, and Club Triathletes. Int J Sports Med. 1998; 19(1):38-42. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-971877

Vleck, V.E. Triathlon injury. In: Caine DJ, Harmer PA & Schiff M (Eds.). Epidemiology of Injury in Olympic Sports. International Olympic Committee 'Encyclopaedia of Sports Medicine' Series. Wiley-Blackwell; 2010. Pp. 294-320.

Vleck, V. Triathlete Training and Injury Analysis: - an investigation in British National Squad and age-group triathletes. VDM Verlag Dr Müller Publishers: Saarbrucken, Germany; 2010b.

Whyte, G., Lumley, S., George, K., Gates, P., Sharma, S., Prasad, K., Et Al. Physiological profile and predictors of cycling performance in ultra-endurance triathletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2000; 40(2):103-9.

Withers, R.T., Sherman, W.M., Miller, J.M., Costill, D.L. Specificity of the anaerobic threshold in endurance trained cyclists and runners. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1981; 47(1):93-104. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00422487

Zhou, S., Robson, S.J., King, M.J., Davie, A.J. Correlations between short-course triathlon performance and physiological variables determined in laboratory cycle and treadmill tests. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1997; 37(2):122-30.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2011.62.01