Self-efficacy and its relationship to selected sport psychological constructs in the prediction of performance in ironman triathlon


  • Ian Heazlewood Charles Darwin University, Australia
  • Stephen Burke Australian Catholic University, Australia



Path analysis, Sport, Psychology, Performance


The focus of this study was to apply this approach to an IronmanTM (3.8km swim, 180km cycle, and 42.2km run) triathlon event. The methodology utilized physiological measures (VO2max, adiposity, height, weight), history of performance and sport psychological constructs (self-efficacy, motivation, sport confidence, cognitive and somatic anxiety) to predict total performance time and individual swim, cycle and run performance times. The results, utilizing correlation, regression and path analysis indicated that performance can be predicted more accurately when variables are assessed from a variety of Human Movement domains. The correlation analysis indicated only outcome orientations (r=0.68, p


Download data is not yet available.


Arbuckle, J. Amos users' guide version 3.6. SPSS Inc.; 1997.

Baker, J., Cote, J., Deakin, J. Cognitive characteristics of expert, middle of pack and back of pack ultra-endurance triathletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2005; 6:551-558.

Baker, J., Sedgwick, W. Sport psychology library: Triathlon. Fitness Information Technology; 2005.

Bandura, A. Self-Efficacy: The exercise of control. Englewood Cliffs: W.H.Freeman and Company; 1997.

Bandura, A. Self-efficacy: towards a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychol Rev. 1977; 84:191-215.

Bandura, A. Social foundation of thought and action: a social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall; 1986.

Butts, N.K., Henry, B.A., Mclean, D. Correlations between VO2max and performance times of recreational triathletes. J Sport Med Phys Fit. 1991; 31(3):339-344.

Dengel, D.R., Flynn, M.G., Costill, D.L., Kirwan, J.P. Determinants of success during triathlon competition. Res Q Exercise Sport. 1989; 60:234-238.

Devries, H., Housh, T. Physiology of exercise for physical education, athletes and exercise science 5th edition. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown; 1994.

Faria, I.E. Applied physiology of cycling. Sports Med. 1984; 1:187-204.

Feltz, D. Self-confidence and sports performance. Exercise Sport Sci R. 1988a; 16:423-457.

Feltz, D. Gender differences in the causal elements of self-efficacy on a high avoidance motor task. J Sport Exercise Psy. 1988b; 10:151-166.

Feltz, D., Short, S., Sullivan, P. Self-efficacy in sport. Illinois: Human Kinetics Books; 2005.

Feltz, D.L., Mugno, D.A. A replication of the path analysis of the causal elements in Bandura's theory of self-efficacy and the influence of autonomic perception. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1983; 5:263-277.

Fitzsimmons, P., Landers, D., Thomas, J., Van Der Mars, H. Does self-efficacy predict performance in experienced weightlifters? Res Q Exercise Sport. 1991; 62(4):424-431.

Gandolfo, C. The woman triathlete. Illinios: Human Kinetics Books; 2005.

Haney, C. Coping effectiveness: a path analysis of self-efficacy, control, coping and performance in sport competition. Vancouver: University of British Columbia; 1991.

Hendy, H.M., Boyer, B.J. Gender differences in attribution for triathlon performance. Sex Roles. 1993; 29(7/8):527-543.

Jones, J., Swain, A., Cale, A. Antecendents of multidimensional competitive state anxiety and self-confidence in elite intercollegiate middle-distance runners. Sport Psychol. 1990; 4:107-118.

Laursen, P., Rhodes, E. Factors affecting performance in an ultraendurance triathlon. Sports Med. 2001; 31(3):195-209.

Martens, R., Vealey, R.S., Burton, D. Competitive anxiety in sport. Illinios: Human Kinetics Books; 1990.

Martin, J.J., Gill, D.I. The relationships among competitive orientation, sport-confidence, self-efficacy, anxiety, and performance. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 1991; 13:149-159.

Mcauley, E. Modelling and self-efficacy: a test of Bandura's model. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1985; 7:283-295.

Mccready, M.L., Long, B.C. Locus of control, attitudes towards physical activity, and exercise adherence. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1985; 7:346-359.

Mora, J. Triathlon 101. Illinios: Human Kinetics Books; 2009.

Moritz, S., Feltz, D., Fahrbach, K., Mack, D. The relation of self-efficacy measures to sport performance: a meta-analytic review. Res Q Exercise Sport. 2000; 71(3):280-295.

O'toole, M.L., Hiller, W., Crosby, L., Douglas, P.S. The ultraendurance triathlete: a physiological profile. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1987; 19:45-50.

Roalstad, M.S. Physiologic testing of the ultraendurance triathlete. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1989; 21:S200-S204.

Schumacker, R., LOMAX, R. A beginner's guide to structural equation modelling. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1996.

Sleivert, G.G., Wenger, H.A. Physiological predictors of short-course triathlon performance. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1993; 25(7):871-876.

Spector, P.E. Research designs. London: Sage; 1981.

Thelwell, R.C., Greenless, I.A. The effects of a mental skills training package on gymnasium Triathlon performance. Sport Psychol. 2001; 15:127-141.

Thelwell, R.C., Greenless, I.A. Developing competitive endurance performance using mental skills training. Sport Psychol. 2003; 17:318-337.

Vealey, R.S. Conceptualization of sport-confidence and competitive orientation: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of Sport Psychology. 1986; 8:221-246.

Vealey, R.S. Sport-confidence and competitive orientation: An addendum on scoring procedures and gender differences. J Sport Exercise Psy. 1988; 10:471-478.

Weiner, B. An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychol Rev. 1985; 92:548-573.

Weinberg, R., Gould, D. Foundations of sport and exercise psychology. Illinios: Human Kinetics Publishers; 2011.

Wilmore, J., Costill, D., Kenney, L. Physiology of sport and exercise. Illinios: Human Kinetics Books; 2008.



Statistics RUA

How to Cite

Heazlewood, I., & Burke, S. (2011). Self-efficacy and its relationship to selected sport psychological constructs in the prediction of performance in ironman triathlon. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 6(2), 328–350.