Technical skill differences in stroke propulsion between high level athletes in triathlon and top level swimmers
In the latest decades the arm propulsion mechanism in human swimming has been an issue of great interest for researchers. The availability of new devices which can easily measure the stroke propulsion by means of a non invasive gauge allows the study of technical skills in real swimming, without artificial and distorting conditions like in a swimming flume or in tethered swimming. Performance in swimming is a crucial factor in another sport such as Olympic Triathlon, however we saw that the triathlon athletes presented shortfalls and differences with respect to expert swimmer, particularly in mean pressure and resultant momentum, but not maximum pressure. Each athlete showed a distinctive shape of the pressure curve, but triathletes present a greater variability in the pressure pattern than competitive swimmers, as is the case of novice vs. expert swimmers observed in previous studies. The possibility of pointing out some differences in stroke propulsion between top level swimmers and high level athletes in triathlon could give some useful indications for coaches in planning triathlon training.
Arellano, R., Terrés-Nicoli, J.M., Redondo, J. Fundamental Hydrodynamics of Swimming Propulsion. In: JP Vilas-Boas, F Alves, A Marques (Eds.). Biomechanics and medicine in swimming X. Porto: Portuguese Journal of Sport Science; 2006.
Arellano, R. Vortices and propulsion. In: R Sanders, J Linsten (Eds.). Swimming: Applied Proceedings of the XVII International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports. Perth: School of Biomedical and Sports Science; 1999.
Berger, M.A.M., De Groot, G., Hollander, A.P. Hydrodynamic drag and lift forces on human hand/arm models. J Biomech. 1995; 28:125-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9290(94)00053-7
Bonen, A., Wilson, B.A., Yarkony, M., Belcastro, A.N. Maximal oxygen uptake during free, tethered, and flume swimming. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1980; 48(2):232-235.
Bottoni, A., Lanotte, N., Bifaretti, S., Boatto, P., Gatta, G., Bonifazi, M. Direct measurement of stroke propulsion in real swimming by means of a non invasive gauge. In: PL Kjendlie, RK Stallman, J Cabri (Eds.). XIth International Symposium for Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming. Oslo: Norwegian School of Sport Sciences; 2010.
Counsilman, J.E. The application of Bernoulli's principle to human propulsion in water. In: L Lewillie, JP Clarys (Eds.). First international symposium on biomechanics of swimming. Brussels: Université Libre de Bruxelles; 1971.
Dickinson, M.H., Götz, K.G. The wake dynamics and flight forces of the fruit fly Drosophila Melanogaster. J Exp Biol. 1996; 199:2085-104.
Dickinson, M.H., Lehmann, F-O., Sane, S.P. Wing rotation and the aerodynamic basis of insect flight. Science. 1999; 284(5422):1954-1960. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.284.5422.1954
Hay, J.G., Carmo, J. Swimming techniques used in the flume differ from those used in a pool. In: Proceedings of the XV International Society of Biomechanics Congress. University of Jyvaskyla; 1995. Pp. 372-373.
Lauder, M.A., Dabnichki, P., Bartlett, R.M., Mckee, T. Direct measurement of propulsive forces in swimming using a mechanical arm. In: SJ Haake, AJ Subic (Eds.). The Engineering of Sport: Research, Development and Innovation. Blackwell Science: Oxford; 2000.
Loetz, C., Reischle, K., Schmitt, G. The evaluation of highly skilled swimmers via quantitative and qualitative analysis. In: BE Ungerechts, K Reischle, K Wilke (Eds.). Swimming Science V. Human Kinetics Books; 1988.
Maglischo, E.W. The Basic propulsive sweeps in competitive swimming. In: WE Morrison. VIIth International Symposium of the Society of Biomechanics in Sports. Victoria: Footscray; 1988.
Matsuuchi, K., Nomura, J., Sakakibara, T., Shintani, H., Ungerechts, B.E. Unsteady flow field around a human hand and propulsive force in swimming. J Biomech. 2008; 42(1):42-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.10.009
Schleihauf, R.E., Higgins, J.R., Hinrichs, R., Leudke, D., Maglischo, C., Maglischo, E.W., Thayer, A. Propulsive techniques: front crawl stroke, butterfly, backstroke, and breaststroke. In: BE Ungerechts, K Reischle, K Wilke (Eds.). Swimming Science V, International Series on Sport Sciences, vol. 18. Champaign: Human Kinetics: 1988.
Schleihauf, R.E. A biomechanical analysis of freestyle. Swimming technique. 1974; 11:89-96.
Schleihauf, R.E. A hydrodynamical analysis of swimming propulsion. In: TA Bedingfield (Ed.). Swimming III. Baltimore: University Park Press; 1979.
Sevec, O.J. Biofeedback for pulling efficiency. Swimming technique. 1982; 19:38-46.
Takagi, H., Sanders, R. Measurement of propulsion by the hand during competitive swimming. In: S Ujihashi, SJ Haake (Eds.). The Engineering of Sport 4. Blackwell Publishing; 2002.
Takagi, H., Wilson, B. Calculating hydrodynamic force by using pressure differences in swimming. In: K Keskinen, P Komi, AP Hollander (Eds.). Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming VIII. University of Jyvaskyia; 1999.
Toussaint, H.M., Berg, C., Beek, W.J. "Pumped-up propulsion" during front crawl swimming. Med Sci Sport Exer. 2002; 34(2):314-319. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200202000-00020
Toussaint, H.M. An alternative fluid dynamic explanation for propulsion in front crawl swimming. In: R Sanders, Y Hong (Eds.). Applied program: Application of biomechanical study in swimming. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong; 2000.
Wilson, B.D., Takagi, H., Pease, D.L. Technique comparison of pool and flume swimming. VIII International Symposium on Biomechanics and Medicine in Swimming. University of Jyväskylä: Jyväskylä, Finland; 1998.
Copyright (c) 2011 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.