Test-Retest reliability of Biodex Balance SD on physically active old people


  • Jose A. Parraca University of Extremadura, Spain
  • Pedro R. Olivares University of Extremadura, Spain
  • Ana Carbonell-Baeza University of Granada, Spain
  • Virginia A. Aparicio University of Granada, Spain
  • Jose C. Adsuar University of Extremadura, Spain
  • Narcis Gusi University of Extremadura, Spain




Equilibrium, Elderly, Stabilometry


The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the Biodex Balance System in elderly. Forty-five subjects aged 66±5.5 years old and weight 71.6±9.8 kg were tested on the Biodex Balance System. In order to calculate the reliability, the Fall Risk Test (FRt) and the Postural Stability Test (PSt) were measured on two separate occasions 7 days apart. Every subject completed the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I) questionnaire the first day of testing. The Fall Risk Index (FRi) showed a good ICC (.80) and a low percentage of variation of method error. The Overall Stability Index (OSi) showed a good and acceptable reliability measured by the ICC (.69) but a percentage of variation of method error near to 25%. FES-I Score was 23.1 (±7.2). The reliability of the BBS using Bland-Altman method showed that systematic errors (mean difference between test-retest) for the balance test developed were nearly zero and the 95% limits of agreement narrow, indicating a good reliability of the measurement. Biodex balance measures were showed reliable and may be useful for measuring the risk of falls and monitoring programs for prevent falls in elderly. This study revealed that fall risk assessment in older people must be incorporated into the evaluation process of the physical functioning.


Download data is not yet available.


Akbari, M., Karimi, H., Farahini, H., & Faghihzadeh, S. Balance problems after unilateral lateral ankle sprains. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2006; 43(7):819-24. https://doi.org/10.1682/JRRD.2006.01.0001

Arnold, B.L., & Schmitz, R.J. Examination of Balance Measures Produced by the Biodex Stability System. J Athl Train. 1998; 33(4):323-7.

Aydog, E., Bal, A., Aydog, S.T., & Cakci, A. Evaluation of dynamic postural balance using the Biodex Stability System in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Clin Rheumatol. 2006; 25(4):462-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10067-005-0074-4

Baldwin, S.L.V., Thomas, W., Ploutz-Snyder, Lori, L. Reliability of dynamic bilateral postural stability on the biodex stability system in older adults. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2004; 36(5):S30.

Bland, J.M. & Altman, D.G. Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement. Lancet. 1986; 1:307-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(86)90837-8

Cachupe, W.J., Shifflett, B., Kahanov, L., & Wughalter. Reliability of Biodex Balance System Measures. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science. 2001; 5(2):97-108. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327841MPEE0502_3

Geldhof, E., Cardon, G., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Danneels, L., Coorevits, P, Vanderstraeten, G., De Clercq, D. Static and dynamic standing balance: test-retest reliability and reference values in 9 to 10 year old children. Eur J Pediatr. 2006; 165(11):779-86. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-006-0173-5

Ghoseiri, K., Forogh, B., Sanjari, M.A., Bavi, A. Effects of vibratory orthosis on balance in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2009; 4(1):58-63. https://doi.org/10.1080/17483100802542868

Gstottner, M., Neher, A., Scholtz, A., Millonig, M., Lembert, S., Raschner, C. Balance ability and muscle response of the preferred and nonpreferred leg in soccer players. Motor Control. 2009; 13(2):218-31. https://doi.org/10.1123/mcj.13.2.218

Hinman, M. Factors affecting reliability of the biodex balance system: A summary of four studies. J Sports Rehabil. 2000; 9:240-52. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.9.3.240

Kammerlind, A.S., Larsson, P.B., Ledin, T., Ouml, R.N., Skargren, E. Reliability of clinical balance tests and subjective ratings in dizziness and disequilibrium. Advances in Physiotherapy. 2005; 7(3):96-107. https://doi.org/10.1080/14038190510010403

Keskin, D., Borman, P., Ersoz, M., Kurtaran, A., Bodur, H., Akyuz, M. The risk factors related to falling in elderly females. Geriatr Nurs. 2008; 29(1):58-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2007.06.001

Melzer, I., Benjuya, N., Kaplanski, J. Postural stability in the elderly: a comparison between fallers and non-fallers. Age and ageing. 2004; 33(6):602-7. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afh218

Moe-Nilssen, R., Nordin, E., Lundin-Olsson, L. Criteria for evaluation of measurement properties of clinical balance measures for use in fall prevention studies. J Eval Clin Pract. 2008; 14(2):236-40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2753.2007.00839.x

Ostrowska, B., Giemza, C., Wojna, D., Skrzek, A. Postural stability and body posture in older women: comparison between fallers and non-fallers. Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja. 2008; 10(5):486-95.

Pajala, S., Era, P., Koskenvuo, M., Kaprio, J., Tormakangas, T., Rantanen, T. Force platform balance measures as predictors of indoor and outdoor falls in community-dwelling women aged 63-76 years. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008; 63(2):171-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/63.2.171

Pincivero, D.M., Lephart, S.M., & Henry, T.J. Learning effects and reliability of the Biodex Stability System. J Athl Training. 1995; 30(35).

Pollock, A.S., Durward, B.R., Rowe, P.J., & Paul, J.P. What is balance? Clin Rehabil. 2000; 14(4):402-6. https://doi.org/10.1191/0269215500cr342oa

Shrout, P.E. & Fleiss, J.L. Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychol Bull. 1979; 86(2):420-8. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.86.2.420

Skelton, D.A. Effects of physical activity on postural stability. Age and ageing. 2001; 4:33-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/30.suppl_4.33

Society, A.G., Society, B.G., AA AND ON FALLS PREVENTION OSP. Guideline for the prevention of falls in older persons. J Ame Geriatr Soc. 2001; 49:664-672. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1532-5415.2001.49115.x

Sturnieks, D.L., St George, R., Lord, S.R. Balance disorders in the elderly. Neurophysiol Clin. 2008; 38(6):467-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2008.09.001

Weir, J.P. Quantifying test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient and the SEM. J Strength Cond Res. 2005; 19(1):231-40.

Yardley, L., Beyer, N., Hauer, K., Kempen, G., Piot-Ziegler, C., & Todd, C. Development and initial validation of the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). Age and ageing. 2005; 34(6):614-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afi196

Yardley, L., Beyer, N., Hauer, K., Mckee, K., Ballinger, C., & Todd, C. Recommendations for promoting the engagement of older people in activities to prevent falls. Qual Health Care. 2007; 16(3):230-4. https://doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2006.019802


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Parraca, J. A., Olivares, P. R., Carbonell-Baeza, A., Aparicio, V. A., Adsuar, J. C., & Gusi, N. (2011). Test-Retest reliability of Biodex Balance SD on physically active old people. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 6(2), 444–451. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2011.62.25



Sport Medicine, Nutrition & Health