Functional aspects of competitive tennis
Keywords:Tennis, Game context, Heart rate, Lactate
Tennis is a sport that is characterized by intermittent dynamics, with intervallic moderate and high-intensity efforts due to repetitive actions of short-duration and high intensity. This review analyzes aspects such as the game's temporal structure, oxygen consumption, heart rate, lactate levels, and the effects of playing in heat. Knowledge of the contextual and functional characteristics of competitive tennis provides important information for improving the design of players training programs.
Bergeron, M., Maresh, C., Armstron, L., Signorile, J., Castellani, J., Kenefick, R., Lagasse, K., Riebe, D. Fluid - electrolyte balance associated with tennis match play in a hot environment. Int J Sport Nutr. 1995; 5(3):180-193. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsn.5.3.180
Bergeron, M., Maresh, C., Kraemer, W., Abraham, A., Conroy, B., Gabaree, C. Tennis: A physiological profile during match play. Int J Sport Med. 1991; 12(5):474-479. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1024716
Bergeron, M.F., Mcleod, K.S., Coyle, J.F. Core body temperature during competition in the heat: national boys' 14's junior tennis championships. Brit J Sport Med. 2007; 41:779-783. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2007.036905
Bergeron, M.F. Heat cramps: fluid and electrolyte challenges during tennis in the heat. Journal Science Medicine Sport. 2003; 6:19-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(03)80005-1
Bernardini, M., De Vito, G., Falvo, M.E. Cardiorespiratory adjustment in middle-level tennis players: are long term cardiovascular adjustments possible? In: T Reilly, M Hughes, A Lees (Eds.). Science and Racket Sports I. London: E & FN Spon; 1998.
Christmass, M., Richmond, S., Cable, N., Arthur, P., Hartmann, P. Exercise intensity and metabolic response in singles tennis. J Sport Sci. 1998; 16:739-747. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404198366371
Christmass, M., Richmond, S., Cable, N., Hartmann, P. A metabolic characterisation of singles tennis. In: T Reilly, M Hughes, A Lees (Eds.). Science and Racket Sports. London: E & FN Spon; 1995.
Davey, P.R., Thorpe, R.D., Wiliams, C. Simulated tennis matchplay in a controlled environment. J Sport Sci. 2003; 21:459-467. https://doi.org/10.1080/0264041031000101926
Deutsch, E., Deustch, S.L., Douglas, P.S. Exercise training for competitive tennis athletes. Strength Conditioning. 1998; 20:14-19.
Elliott, B., Ackland, T., Blansky, B., Hood, K., Bloomfield, J. Profiling junior tennis players Part 1: morphological, physiological and psychological normative data. Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 1989; 21(3):14-21.
Elliott, B., Dawson, B., Pyke, F. The energetics of singles tennis. J Hum Movement Stud. 1985; 11:11-20.
fernández, j., fernández-garcía, b., méndez-villanueva, a. Activity patterns, lactate profile and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during professional tennis singles tournament. In: M Crespo, P Mclnerney, D Miley (Eds.). Quality coaching for the future. 14 th ITF worldwide coaches workshop. London: ITF; 2005.
Fernandez, J., Mendez-Villanueva, A., Pluim, B. Intensity of tennis match play. Brit J Sport Med. 2006; 40:387-391. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.023168
Fernández-Fernández, J., Méndez-Villanueva, A., Fernández-García, B., Terrados, N. Match activity and physiological responses during a junior female singles tennis tournament. Brit J Sport Med. 2007; 41:711-716. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2007.036210
Fernández-Fernández, J., Sanz-Rivas, D., Fernández-García, B., Mendez-Villanueva, A. Match activity and physiological load during a clay-court tennis tournament in elite female players. J Sport Sci. 2008; 30:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410802287089
Fernández-Fernández, J., Sanz-Rivas, D., Sánchez-Muñoz, C., Pluim, M.B., Tiemessen, I., Mendez-Villanueva, A. A comparison of the activity profile and physiological demands between advanced and recreational veteran tennis players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009; 23(2):604-610. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318194208a
Ferrauti, A., Chulz, H., Strüder, H.K. Metabolism in tennis and running with similar oxygen uptake and duration. Int J Sports Med. 1998; 19:(Suppl 22).
Ferrauti, A., Bergeron, M., Pluim, B., Weber, K. Physiological responses in tennis and running with similar oxygen uptake. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001; 85:27-33. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210100425
Ferrauti, A., Weber, K., Wright, P.R. Endurance: basic, semi-specific and specific. In: M Reid, A Quinn, M Crespo (Eds.). Strength and conditioning for tennis. London: ITF; 2003.
Girard, O., Lattier, G., Micalef, J.P., Millet, G.P. Changes in exercise characteristics, maximal voluntary contraction, and explosive strength during prolonged tennis playing. Brit J Sport Med. 2006; 40(6):521-526. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.023754
Girard, O., Millet, G.P. Effects of the ground surface on the physiological and technical responses in young tennis players. In: A Lees, J-F Kahn, IW Maynard (Eds.). Science and Racket Sports III. Routledge; Taylor & Francis Group; 2004.
Green, J.M., Crews, T.R., Bosak, A.M., Peveler, W.W. A comparison of respiratory compensation thresholds of anaerobic competitors, aerobic competitors and untrained subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003; 90:608-613. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-003-0892-5
Groppel, D., Roetert, P. Applied physiology of tennis. Sports Med. 1992; 14(4):260-268. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199214040-00004
Hornery, D., Farrow, D., Mújika, L., Young, W. An integrated physiological and performance profile of professional tennis. Brit J Sport Med. 2007b; 41(8):531-536. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2006.031351
Hornery, D., Farrow, D., Mújika, L., Young, W. Fatigue in tennis. Mechanisms of fatigue and effect on performance. Sport Med. 2007a; 37(3):199-212. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200737030-00002
Houmard, J.A., Wheeler, W.S., Mccammon, M.R., Holbert, D., Israel, R.G., Barakat, H.A. Effects of fitness level and the regional distribution of fat on carbohydrate metabolism and plasma lipids in middle – to older – aged men. Metabolism. 1991; 40(7):714-719. https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(91)90089-F
International Tennis Federation. Rules of tennis. London: ITF; 2006.
Kavasis, K. Fluid replacement needs of young tennis players. In: T Reilly, M Hughes, A Lees (Eds.). Science and Racket Sports I. London: E & FN Spon; 1995.
Kibler, W., Mcqueen, C., Uhl, T. Fitness evaluations and fitness findings in competitive junior tennis players. Clin Sport Med. 1988; 7(2):403-16.
König, D., Huonker, M., Schmid, A., Halle, M., Berg, A., Keul, J. Cardiovascular, metabolic, and hormonal parameters in professional tennis players. Med Sci Sport Exer. 2001; 33(4):654-658. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200104000-00022
Kovacs, M. A comparison of work/rest intervals in men’s professional tennis. Med Sci Sport Exer. 2004; 33:654-658.
Kovacs, M. Applied physiology of tennis performance. Brit J Sport Med. 2006b; 40:381-386. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.023309
Kovacs, M. Hydration and temperature in tennis – A practical review. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2006a; 5:1-9.
Kovacs, M. Tennis physiology. Training the competitive athlete. Sports Med. 2007; 37(3):189-198. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200737030-00001
Kovacs, M.S., Strecker, E., Chandler, W.B. Time analysis of work/rest intervals in men's collegiate tennis. J Strength Cond Res. 2004; 18:e364.
Kovacs, M.S. Heat and hydration recovery in tennis. In: MS Kovacs, TS Ellenbecker, WB Kibler (Eds.). Tennis recovery: A comprehensive review of the research. Boca Raton, Florida: USTA; 2009.
Kraemer, W., Ratamess, N., Fry, A., Triplett-Mcbride, T., Koziris, P., Bauer, J., Lynch, J., Fleck, S. Influence of resistance training volume and periodization on physiological and performance adaptations in collegiate women tennis players. Am J Sport Med. 2000; 28 (5):626-633. https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465000280050201
Magal, M., Webster, M.J., Sistrunk, L.E., Whitehead, M.T., Evans, R.K., Boyd, J.C. Comparison of glycerol and water hydration regimens on tennis-related performance. Med Sci Sport Exer. 2003; 35(1):150-156. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200301000-00023
McCarthy, P.R., Thorpe, R.D., Williams, C. Body fluid loss during competitive tennis match-play. In: T Reilly, M Hughes, A Lees (Eds.). Science and Racket Sports I. London: E & FN Spon; 1998.
Méndez-Villanueva, A., Fernández-Fernández, J., Bishop, D., Fernandez-García, B., Terrados, N. Activity patterns, blood lactate concentrations and ratings of perceived during a professional singles tennis tournament. Brit J Sport Med. 2007; 41:296-300. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2006.030536
Mitchell, J., Cole, K., Grandjean, P., Soczack, R. The effect of a carbohydrate beverage on tennis performance and fluid balance during prolonged tennis play. Journal of Applied Sport Science Research. 1992; 6(3):174-180.
Mitchell, J., Grandjean, P., Pizza, F., Starling, R., Holtz, R. The effect of volume ingested on rehydration and gastric emptying following exercise – induced dehydration. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1994; 26(9):1135-1143. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199409000-00011
Morante, S., Brotherhood, J. Match Characteristics of Professional Singles Tennis. Medicine and Science in Tennis. 2005; 10(3):12-13.
Morante, S.M., Brotherhood, J.R. Thermoregulatory responses during competitive singles tennis. Brit J Sport Med. 2008; 42:736-741. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2007.037002
Murias, J.M., Lanatta, D., Arcuri, C.R., Laiño, F.A. Metabolic and functional responses playing tennis on different surfaces. J Strength Cond Res. 2007; 21(1):112-117. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200702000-00021
O'Donoghue, P., Ingram, B. A notational analysis of elite tennis strategy. J Sport Sci. 2001; 19:107-115. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404101300036299
Reid, M., Duffiel, R., Dawson, B., Baker, J., Crespo, M. Quantification of the physiological and performance characteristics of on-court tennis drills. Brit J Sport Med. 2008; 42(2):146-151. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2007.036426
Reilly, T., Palmer, J. Investigation of exercise intensity in male singles lawn tennis. In: T Reilly, M Hughes, A Lees (Eds.). Science and Racket Sports I. London: E & FN Spon; 1995.
Sánchez-Muñoz, C., Sanz, D., Zabala, M. Anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite junior tennis players. Brit J Sport Med. 2007; 41:793-799. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2007.037119
Schmitz, A. Das Verhalten von Herzfrequenz und des Blutlaktats bei Leistungstennisspielern. Dissertation, University K6ln: 911; 1990.
Smekal, G., Von Duvillard, S., Rihacek, C., Pokan, R., Hofmann, P., Baron, R., Tschan, H., Bachl, N. A physiological profile of tennis match play. Med Sci Sport Exer. 2001; 33(6):999-1005. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200106000-00020
Speedy, D.B., Noakes, T.D., Rogers, I.R., Hellemans, I., Kimber, N.E., Boswell, D.R., Campbell, R., Kuttner, J.A. A propective study of exercise – associated hyponatremia in two ultradistance triathletes. Clinic Journal Sport Medicine. 2000; 10(2):136-141. https://doi.org/10.1097/00042752-200004000-00009
Therminarias, A., Dansou, P., Chirpaz-Oddou, M., Quirino, A. Effects of age on heart rate response during a strenuous match of tennis. J Sport Med Phys Fit. 1990; 30:389-396.
Therminarias, A., Dansou, P., Chirpaz, M., Eterradossi, J., Favre–Juvin, A. Cramps, heat stroke and abnormal biological responses during a strenuous tennis match. In: T Reilly, M Hughes, A Lees (Eds.). Science and Racket Sports I. London: E & FN Spon; 1995.
Therminarias, A., Dansou, P., Chirpaz, M., Gharib, C., Quirino, A. Hormonal and metabolic changes during a strenuous tennis match. Effect of ageing. Int J Sports Med. 1991; 12(1):10-16. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1024647
Torres, G., Cabello, D., Carrasco, L. Functional differences between tennis and badminton in young sportsmen. In: A Lees, J-F Kahn, IW Maynard (Eds.). Science and Racket Sports III. Routledge; Taylor & Francis Group; 2004.
Torres-Luque, G., Cabello-Manrique, D., Hernández-García, R., Garatachea, N. An analysis of competition in young tennis players. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011; 11(1):39-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461391003770533
Torres-Luque, G., Villaverde, C. Plasma volume and electrolyte changes after a female single tennis match. Apunts. Medicina de l´esport. 2007; 156:169-174.
Unierzyski, P. Influence of physical fitness specific to the game of tennis, morphological and psychological factors on performance level in tennis in different age groups. In: T Reilly, M Hughes, A Lees (Eds.). Science and Racket Sports I. London: E & FN Spon; 1995.
Urhausen, A., Coen, B., Weiler, B., Kindermann, W. Evaluation of physical performance and training monitoring. Leistungssport. 1990; 5:29–34.
Van Beaumont, W., Undrekofler, S., Van Beaumont, S. Erythrocyte volume, plasma volume and acid base changes in exercise and heat dehydration. J Appl Physiol. 1981; 50:1255-1262.
Verlinden, M., Van Ruyskensvelde, J., Van Gorp, B., De Decker, S., Goossens, R., Clarijs, J.P. Effect of gender and tennis court surface properties upon strategy in elite singles. In: A Lees, J-F Kahn, IW Maynard (Eds.). Science and Racket Sports III. Routledge; Taylor & Francis Group; 2004.
Viru, A., Viru, M. Análisis y control del rendimiento deportivo. Barcelona: Paidotribo; 2003.
Williford, H., Scharff, M., Gauger, S., Duey, W., Blessing, D. Cardiovascular and metabolic costs of forward, backward and lateral motion. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1998; 30(9):1419-1423.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2011 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.