Effects of combined electrostimulation and plyometric training on vertical jump and speed tests

Elisa Benito-Martínez, Amador J. Lara-Sánchez, Daniel Berdejo-del-Fresno, Emilio J. artínez-López

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the performance evolution of a group of athletes after 8 weeks of training that combined electrostimulation (NM ES) and plyometrics (PT). 78 medium level sprinter athletes participated, 40 women and 38 men (age, 15.9±1.4 years old, body mass index, 20.5±1.68 kg/m2; weight 58.53±8.05 kg; height, 1.68±0.07 m). The sample was randomized into four groups [Control (PT only), NM ES + PT, PT + NM ES, and Simultaneous (plyometric jumps were performed through the passage of current). Improvements were obtained in the Abalakov jump of 3.57% (p < 0.01), 13.51% (p < 0.001), 1.23% (p < 0.01), and 0.77%, and in the sprint of 0.45%, 3.87% (p < 0.05), 4.56% (p < 0.01) and 7.26% p < 0.001 for the control group, NM ES + PT group, PT + NM ES group, and Simultaneous group, respectively. It was concluded that a) improvement in vertical jump requires the application of the NM ES prior to PT; b) the sprinter athlete must combine the workout simultaneously or apply the ES after the PT training; and c) in sportspeople that require improvement in both the vertical jump and speed tests (e.g. basketball) the simultaneous method is not recommended, the order of application of NM ES and PT being non-determinant. Finally, the time needed to obtain significant improvement in strength training through a combination of NM ES and PT is substantially lower (15 days) than the time needed to improve speed (30 days).


Keywords

Electrostimulation; Plyometrics; Muscle strength; Abalakov jump; Speed 30 m launched

References

Arazi, H., & Asadi, A. (2011). The effect of aquatic and land plyometric training on strength, sprint, and balance in young basketball players. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 6(1), 101-111. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2011.61.12

Babault, N., Cometti, G., Bernardin, M., Pousson, M., Chatard, J. Effects of electromyostimulation training on muscle strength and power of elite rugby players. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21:431-437.

Berdejo, D., González, J.M. Strength training in young tennis players. J Sport Health Res. 2009;1:46-55.

Billot, M., Martin, A., Paizis, C., Cometti, C., Babault, N. Effects of an electrostimulation training program on strength, jumping and kicking capacities in soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:1407-1413. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d43790

Bobbert, M.F. Drop jumping as a training method for jumping ability. Sports Med. 1990; 9:7–22. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199009010-00002

Brocherie, F., Babault, N., Cometti, G., Maffiuletti, N., Chatard, J.C. Electrostimulation training effects on the physical performance of ice hockey players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005; 37:455-460. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000155396.51293.9F

Child, R.B., Brown, S.J., Day, S.H., Saxton, J.M., Donnelly, A.E. Manipulation of knee extensor force using percutaneous electrical myostimulation during eccentric actions: Effects on indices of muscle damange in humans. Int J Sports Med. 1998; 19:468-473. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-971946

Chu, D. Ejercicios Pliométricos. Paidotribo: Barcelona, 1999.

Cometti, G. El entrenamiento de la velocidad. Paidotribo: Barcelona, 2002.

Delitto, A., Brown, M.J., Strube, S.J., Rose Lechman, R.C. Electrical stimulation of quadriceps femoris in an elite weight lifer: A single subjets experiment. Int J Sports Med. 1989; 10:187-191. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1024898

González, J.M., Machado, L., Navarro, F.J., Vilas-Boas, J.P. Acute affects of strenght training from heavy loads and static stretching training on squat jump and countermovement jump. Rev Int Cienc Deporte. 2006; 2:47-56. https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2006.00404

Herrero, J., Izquierdo, M., Maffiuletti, N., García-López, J. Electromyostimulation and plyometric training effects on jumping and sprint time. Int J Sports Med. 2006; 27:533-539. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-865845

Holcomb, W.R. Is neuromuscular electrical stimulation and effective alternative to resistance training? Strength Condit J. 2005; 27:76-79. https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200506000-00016

Juárez, D., Navarro, F., Aceña, R.M., González, J.M., Arija, A., Muñoz, V. Relación entre fuerza explosiva en squat y acciones de salto, sprint y golpeo de balón. Rev Int Cienc Deporte. 2008; 4:1-12. https://doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2008.01001

Jubeau, M., Zory, R., Gondin, J., Martin, A., Maffiuletti, N.A. Late neuronal adaptations to electrical stimulation resistance training of the plantar flexor muscle. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006; 98:202-211. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-006-0264-z

Kotzamanidis, C. Effect of plyometric training on running performance and vertical jumping in prepubertal boys. J Strength Cond Res. 2006; 20:441-445.

Lake, D. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Sports Med. 1992; 13:320-336. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199213050-00003

Lara, A.J., Abián, J., Alegre, L.M., Linares, L., Aguado, X. Jump tests on a force platform for applicants to a sports science degree. J Hum Mov Stud. 2006; 50:133-148.

Lehance, C., Croisier, J.L., & Bury, T. Optojump system efficiency in the assessment of lower limbs explosive strength. Sci Sports. 2005; 20:131–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scispo.2005.01.001

Luebbers, P.E., Potteiger, J.A., Hulver, M.W., Thyfault, J.P., Carper, M.J., Lockwood, R.H. Effects of plyometric training and recovery on vertical jump performance and anaerobic power. J Strength Cond Res. 2003; 17:704–709.

Maffiuletti, N., Dugnani, S., Folz, M., Di Pierno, E., Mauro, F. Effects of combined electrostimulation and plyometric training of vertical jump height. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002; 34:1638-1644. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200210000-00016

Maffiuletti, N. Correspondence: Cautionis required when comparing the effectiveness of voluntary versus stimulated versus combined strength training modalities. Sports Med. 2008; 38:437-440. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838050-00006

Markovic, G., Jukic, I., Milanovic, D., Metikos, D. Effects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2007; 21:543–549.

Martínez-López, E.J., Lara, A.J., Cachón, J., Rodríguez, I. Characteristics, frecuencies and type of physical exercise practiced by the adolescents. Special attention to the obese pupil. J Sport Health Res. 2009; 1:88-100.

Matsuse, H., Shiba, N., Umezu, Y., Nago, T., Tagawa, Y., Kakuma, T., Nagata, K., Basford, J.R. Muscle training by means of combined electrical stimulation and volitional contraction. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2006; 77:581-585.

Miller, C., Thepautmathieu, C. Strength training by electrostimulation conditions for efficay. Int J Sports Med. 1993;14:20-28. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-1021140

Paillard, T., Noé, F., Passelergue, P., An Dupui, P. Electrical stimulation superimposed onto voluntary muscular contraction. Sports Med. 2005; 35:951-966. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200535110-00003

Paillard, T. Combined application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and voluntary muscular contractions. Sports Med. 2008; 38:161-177. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838020-00005

Raquena, B., Padial, P., González-Badillo, J.J. Percutaneus electrical stimulation in strength training: An up data. J Strength Cond Res. 2005; 19:438-448. https://doi.org/10.1519/13173.1

Riggs, M.P., Sheppard, J.M. J Hum Sport Exerc. 2009; 3:221-236. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2009.43.04

Takano, Y., Haneda, Y., Maeda, T., Sakay, Y., Matsuse, H., Kawaguchi, T., Tagawa, Y., Shiba, N. Increasing muscle strength and mass of thigh in elderly people with the hybrid-training method of electrical stimulation and volitional contraction. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2010; 221:77-85. https://doi.org/10.1620/tjem.221.77

Tricoli, V., Lamas, L., Carnevale, R., Crielaard, J.M. Short-term effects on lower-body funcional power development weightlifting vs. vertical jump training programs. J Strength Cond Res. 2005; 19:433-437.

Vanderthommen, M., Crielaard, J.M. Electromyostimulation en medicine du sport. Rev Med Liege. 2001; 56:391-395.

Verkhoshansky, Y. ¿En qué consiste el régimen pliométrico del trabajo muscular?, Paidotribo: Barcelona, 1999.

Vittori, C. El entrenamiento de la fuerza para el sprint. Revista de Entrenamiento Deportivo. 1990; 4:2-8.

Yanagi, T., Shiba, N., Maeda, T., Iwasa, K., Umezu, Y., Tagawa, Y., Matsuo, S., Nagata, K., Yamamoto, T., Basford, J.R. Agonist contractions against electrically stimulated antagonists. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003; 84:843-848. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9993(02)04948-1




DOI: https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2011.64.04