Assessment of the level of muscular strength and volume in physically active English adults
Keywords:Age, Physical activity, Isometric strength, Muscle volume
AbstractThe aim of this study is to describe the muscular volume and strength of different body segments from a sample of 19 English male participants, with a mean age of 43.84 (±11.62). An isometric dynamometer (Standard type S) has been used for the strength measurements, as well as an isokinetic device (Cibex Norm, Ronkonkama, New York, U.S.A.) and a M.R.I scanner (Esaote G-Scan biomedical, Milan, Italy) for measuring the muscular volume. The Baecke Questionnaire (1982) helped to determine the participants habitual level of physical activity. The results reveal an inverse relationship between age and isometric strength of the biceps muscle (r=-0.518; p<0.05). In addition, there exists a correlation between the handgrip of the right hand and the left hand (r=0.788; p<0.001); torque of the knee extensor muscles and the ankle extensor muscles (r=0.712; p<0.01); time of torque of the knee flexor and extensor muscles (r=0.773; p<0.001) volume of the biceps and triceps muscles (r=0.849; p<0.001), as well as several correlations between the different volumes of the quadriceps muscles. As a conclusion, age has a negative influence on the production of isometric strength of the biceps muscle, but not of the knee extensor muscles. As expected, the antagonistic muscle groups actuating around the knee, i.e. the extensor and flexor groups seem to be adapted to each other in terms of volume, strength and rate of force development.
Akagi, R., Takai, Y., Ohta, M., Hiroaki, H., Kawakami, Y., Fukunaga, T. Muscle volume compared to cross-sectional area is more appropriate for evaluating muscle strength in young and elderly individuals. Age and Ageing. 2009; 38(5):564-569. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afp122
Andrade, E., Matsudo, S., Matsudo, V., Araujo, T. Body mass index and neuromotor performance in elderly women. In: Proceedings International Pre-Olympic Congress, Physical activity sport and health: Dallas. 1996.
Asakawa, D.S., Blemker, S.S., Gold, G.E., Delp, S.L. In vivo motion of the rectus femoris muscle after tendon transfer surgery. Journal of Biomechanics. 2002; 35 (8):1029-1037. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(02)00048-9
Baecke, J.A.H., Burema, J., Fritters, J.E.R. A short questionnaire tor the measurement of habitual physical activity epidemiological studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1982; 36:932-942.
Balagopal, P., Rooyackers, O., Adey, D., Ades, P., Nair, K. Effects of aging on in vivo synthesis of skeletal muscle myosin heavy-chain and sarcoplasmic protein in humans. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1997; 273(4):790-800. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.1997.273.4.E790
Baldini, M., Bernal, P.A., Jiménez, R., Garatachea, N. Valoración de la condición física funcional en ancianos. Revista Digital EFDeportes. 2006; 103.
Candow, D., Chilibeck, P. Differences in size, strength, and power of upper and lower body muscle groups in young and older men. Journal of Gerontology: biological sciences. 2005; 60A(2):148-156. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/60.2.148
Davies, C., Dooley, P., Mcdonagh, M., White, M. Adaptation to mechanical properties of muscle to high force training in man. Journal of Physiology. 1985; 365:277-284. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.1985.sp015771
De Vita, P., Hortobagyi, T. Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2000; 88:1804-1811. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2000.88.5.1804
Enoka, R., Fuglevand, A., Barreto, P. Age does not impair the voluntary ability to maximal activate muscle. In: Draganich L, Wells R, Bechtold J. (Eds.). The proceedings of the second North American congress in biomechanics. Chicago, IL. 1992; 63-64.
Evans, W., Campbell, W. Sarcopenia and age-related changes in body composition and functional capacity. Journal of Nutrition. 1993; 123:465-468.
Ferreti, G., Gussoni, M., Di Prampero, P., Cerretelli, P. Effects of exercise on maximal instantaneous muscular power of humans. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1987; 62:2288-2294. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19126.96.36.1998
Ferreti, G., Narici, M., Binzoni, T., Gariod, L., Lebas, J., Reutenauer, H., Cerretelli, P. Determinants of peak muscle power: effects of age and physical conditioning. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 1994; 68:111-115. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00244022
Fransen, M., Crosbie, J., Edmonds, J. Isometric muscle force measurement for clinicians treating patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis and Rheumatism. 2003; 49(1):29-35. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.10923
Frontera, W. R., Hughes, V. A., Lutz, K. J., & Evans, W. J. (1991). A cross-sectional study of muscle strength and mass in 45- to 78-yr-old men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 71(2), 644–650. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19188.8.131.524
Fukunaga, T., Miyatani, M., Tachi, M., Kouzaki, M., Kawakami, Y., Kanehisa, H. Muscle volume is a major determinant of joint torque in humans. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 2001; 172(4):249-255. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-201x.2001.00867.x
García, D., Bresciani, G., Cabeza De Vaca, S., Garatachea, N., Paz, J. La coactivación del biceps femoral limita la fuerza máxima isométrica de extensión de rodilla en ciclistas de ruta. Apunts. Medicina de l`Esport. 2006; 41(152):139-144.
Goodpaster, B., Park, S., Harris, T., Kritchevsky, S., Nevitt, M., Schwartz, A., Simonsick, E., Tylavsky, F., Visser, M., Newman, A. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults: the health, aging and body composition study. Journal of Gerontology Biological Science and Medical Science. 2006; 61(10):1059-1064. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/61.10.1059
Guirao, J., Cabrero, J., Moreno, J., Muñoz, P. Revisión estructurada de los cuestionarios y escalas que miden la actividad física en los adultos mayores y ancianos. Gaceta Sanitaria. 2009; 23(4):51-67.
Häkkinen, K., Häkkinen, A. Muscle cross-sectional area, force production and relaxation characteristics in women at different ages. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 1991; 62(6):410-414. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00626612
Häkkinen, K., Häkkinen, A. Neuromuscular adaptations during intensive strength training in middle-aged and elderly males and females. Clinical Neurophysiology. 1995; 35(3):137-147.
Hakkinen, K., Pastienen, U., Karsikas, R., Linnamo, V. Neuromuscular performance in voluntary bilateral and unilateral contractions and during electrical stimulation in men at different ages. European Journal of Appied Physiology. 1995; 70:518-527. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00634381
Harridge, S., Kryger, A., & Stensgaard, A. Knee extensor strength, activation, and size in very elderly people following strength training. Muscle & Nerve. 1999; 22:831-839. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4598(199907)22:7<831::AID-MUS4>3.0.CO;2-3
Holzbaur, K.R., Delp, S.L., Gold, G.E., Murray, W.M. Moment-generating capacity of upper limb muscles in healthy adults. Journal of Biomechanics. 2007; 40:2442-2449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2006.11.013
Hugues, S., Schiaffino, S. Control of muscle fibre size: a crucial factor in ageing. Acta Physiological Scandinavica. 1999; 167:307-312. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-201x.1999.00619.x
Izquierdo, M. Entrenamiento de la fuerza en personas mayores ¿cómo hay que entrenar la fuerza en los mayores? G-SE Premium. 12/09/2007. g-se.com/a/800/.
Janssen, I., Heymsfield, S., Wang, Z., Ross, R. Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18-88 yr. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2000; 89(1):81-88. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2000.89.1.81
Jeffrey, E., Conwit, R., Tobin, J., Fozard, J. Age-associated loss of power and strength in the upper extremities in women and men. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences. 1997; 52(5):267-276.
Kanehisa, H., Ikegawa, S., Fukunaga, T. Comparison of muscle cross-sectional area and strength between untrained women and men. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 1994; 68(2):148-154. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00244028
Klein, C., Rice, C., Marsh, G. Normalized force, activation, and coactivation in the arm muscles of young and old men. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2001; 91(3):1341-1349. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.2001.91.3.1341
Larsson, L., Li, X., Frontera, W. Effects of aging on shortening velocity and myosin isoform composition in single human skeletal muscle cells. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. 1997; 272:638-649. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.1997.272.2.C638
Lexell, J., Taylor, C., Sjostrom, M. What is the cause of the ageing atrophy? Total number, size and proportion of different fiber types studied in whole vastus lateralis muscle from 15- to 83-year-old men. Journal of the Neurological Science. 1988; 84(2-3):275-294. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-510X(88)90132-3
Lindle, R., Metter, E., Lynch, N., Fleg, J., Fozard, J., Tobin, J., Roy, T., Hurley, B. Age and gender comparisons of muscle strength in 654 women and men aged 20-93 yr. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1997; 83(5):1581-1587. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19184.108.40.2061
Macaluso, A., Nimmo, M., Foster, J., Cockburn, M., Mcmillan, N., De Vito, G. Contractile muscle volume and agonistantagonist coactivation account for differences in torque between young and older women. Muscle Nerve. 2002; 25(6):858-863. https://doi.org/10.1002/mus.10113
Mora, M., Villalobos, D., Araya, G., Ozols, A. Perspectiva subjetiva de la calidad de vida del adulto mayor, diferencias ligadas al género y a la práctica de la actividad físico recreativa. Revista MHSalud. 2004; 1(1):2.
Morse, C.H., Degens, H., Jones, D. The validity of estimating quadriceps volume from single MRI cross-sections in young men. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2007; 100:267-274. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0429-4
Morse, C.I., Thom, J.M., Davis, M.G., Fox, K.R., Birch, K.M., Narici, M.V. Reduced plantarflexor specific torque in the elderly is associated with a lower activation capacity. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004; 92 (1-2):219-226. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1056-y
Narici, M., Bordini, M., Cerretelli, P. Effect of aging on human adductor pollicis muscle function. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1991; 71(4):1277-1281. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19220.127.116.117
Narici, M., Maganaris, C., Reeves, N., Capodaglio, P. Effect of aging on human muscle architecture. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2003; 95(6):2229-2234. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00433.2003
Pappas, G.P., Asakawa, D.S., Delp, S.L., Zajac, F.E., Drace, J.E. Nonuniform shortening in the biceps brachii during elbow flexion. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2002; 92(6):2381-2389. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00843.2001
Pearson, M., Bassey, E., Bendall, M. Muscle strength and anthropometric indices in elderly men and women. Age and ageing. 1985; 14:19-54. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/14.1.49
Popadic, J., Kozic, D., Dragnic, N., Jakovljevic, D., Brodie, D., Grujic, N. Changes of functional status and volume of triceps brachii measured by magnetic resonance imaging after maximal resistance training. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2009; 29(3):671-676. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.21690
Popescue, M. Weight training and the velocity of a baseball. Athletic Journal. 1974; 55:105-106.
Renstrom, P. Clinical practice of sports injury prevention and care. Blackwell Scientific Publications. 1994.
Roig, J. Sarcopenia: algo más que la disminución de la masa muscular. G-SE Standard. 15/12/2003. g-se.com/a/222/.
Sale, D.G. Neural adaptation to resistance training. Medicine Science and Sports Exercise. 1988; 20:5135-5145. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198810001-00009
Sanjuás, C. Medición de la calidad de vida: ¿cuestionarios genéricos o específicos? Archivos de Bronconeumología. 2005; 41(3):107-109. https://doi.org/10.1157/13071579
Sapega, A.A. Muscle performance evaluation in orthopaedic practice. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 1990; 72(10):1562-1574. https://doi.org/10.2106/00004623-199072100-00023
Sipila, S. Physical training and skeletal muscle in elderly women. Studies in sport, physical education and health: University of Jyvaskyla. 1996.
Sobel, J. Shoulder rehabilitation: rotator cuff tendonitis, strength training a return to play. In: F. A. Pettrone (Ed.). Symposium on upper extremity injuries in athletes. 1986; 348-347.
Tingart, M.J., Apreleva, M., Lehtinen, J.T., Capell, B., Palmer, W.E., Warner, J.J. Magnetic resonance imaging in quantitative analysis of rotator cuff muscle volume. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 2003; 415:104-110. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.blo.0000092969.12414.e1
Vilaro, J., Gimeno, E., Ferez, N.S., Hernando, C., Díaz, I., Ferrer, M., Roca, J., Alonso, J. Daily living activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: validation of the Spanish version and comparative analysis of 2 questionnaires. Medicina Clínica. 2007; 129(9):326-332.
Winegard, K., Hicks, A., Sale, D., Vandervoort, A. A 12-year follow-up study of ankle muscle function in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1996; 51(3):B202-207. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/51A.3.B202
Zamboni, M., Turcato, E., Santana, H., Maggi, S., Harris, T., Pietrobelli, A., Heymsfield, S., Micciolo, R., Bosello, O. The relationship between body composition and physical performance in older women. Journal of the American Geriatric Society. 1999; 47(12):1403-1408. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.1999.tb01557.x
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2012 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.