Dynamic exercise versus tag game warm up: The acute effect on agility and vertical jump in children

Diogo Henrique Constantino-Coledam, Ana Carolina Paludo, Arli Ramos de Oliveira, Júlio Wilson dos-Santos

Abstract

Although dynamic and stretching exercises have been widely investigated, there is little information about warm up performed by tag games. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to verify the acute effect of dynamic exercises compared to a tag game warm up on agility and vertical jump in children. 25 boys and 24 girls participated in this study and performed the agility and vertical jump tests after warm up based dynamic exercises or as a tag game lasting 10 min each in two different days randomly. Dynamic exercises warm up consisted in a run lasting 2,5 min followed by 2 series of 8 dynamic exercises lasting 10 seconds each interspersed with 20s of light run to recovery. Tag game warm up was performed by a tag game with two variations lasting 5 min each. The first variation there was a single cather, which aimed to get the other participants by touching hands. In the second part of the game, the rules were the same except that the participant that was caught had to help the catcher forming a team of catchers. Warm up intensity was monitored by OMNI perceived exertion scale. ANOVA 2x2 for repeated measures (Warm up x Sex) demonstrated no significant differences between dynamic exercises and tag game for agility and vertical jump (P>0,05) for boys and girls. Perceived exertion was significantly higher in tag game compared to dynamic exercises on girls (P<0,05). Both warm up models showed similar acute effects on agility and vertical jump in children.


Keywords

Motor performance; Physical fitness; Pre-activity

References

Ajemian, R., D'ausilio, A., Moorman, H., Bizzi, E. Why professional athletes need a prolonged period of warm-up and other peculiarities of human motor learning. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2010; 42:381-88. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222895.2010.528262

Barkley, J.E., Roemmich, J.N. Validity of a pediatric RPE scale when different exercise intensities are completed on separate days. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness. 2011; 9:52-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1728-869X(11)60007-5

Binkhorst, R.A., Hoofd, L., Vissers, A.C.A. Temperature and force-velocity relationship of human muscles. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1977; 42:190-213. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1977.42.4.471

Bishop, D. Warm up II: Performance changes following active warm up and how to structure the warm up. Sports Medicine. 2003; 33:483-98. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333070-00002

Braga, V.M.S., Silva, A.E.S., Gress, F.A.G., Krug, A. Relação entre índices antropométricos e resposta da pressão arterial ao exercício em crianças. Revista da Educação Física da UEM. 2006; 17:19-26.

Bringolf-Isler, B., Grize, L., Mader, U., Ruch, N., Sennhauser, F.H., Braun-Fahrlander, C. Assessment of intensity, prevalence and duration of everyday activities in Swiss school children: a cross-sectional analysis of accelerometer and diary data. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2009; 6:50-60. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-6-50

Coledam, D.H.C., Dos-Santos, J.W. Efeito agudo do aquecimento realizado através de exercícios dinâmicos e jogo de futebol em campo reduzido sobre a agilidade em crianças. Revista da Educação Físíca da UEM. 2011; 22:255-64. https://doi.org/10.4025/reveducfis.v22i2.9349

Coledam, D.H.C., Dos-Santos, J.W. Efeito dos aquecimentos com jogo de futebol e com exercícios dinâmicos sobre a agilidade e impulsão horizontal em pré-adolescentes praticantes de futebol. Revista Brasileira de Futebol. 2010; 3:12-21.

Coledam, D.H.C., Talamoni, G.A., Cozin, M., Santos, J.W. Efeito do aquecimento com corrida sobre a agilidade e impulsão vertical de atletas juvenis de futebol. Motriz. Revista de Educação Física da UNESP. 2009; 15:257-62.

Davies, C.T.M., Young, K. Effect of temperature on the contractile properties and muscle power of triceps surae in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1983; 55:191-5. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1983.55.1.191

Duncan, M.J., Woodfield, L.A. Acute effects of warm up protocol on flexibility and vertical jump in children. Journal of Exercise Physiology Online. 2006; 9:9-16.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Mcfarland, J.E., Kelly, N.A., Ratamess, N.A., Kang, J., Hoffman, J.R. Influence of recovery time on warm-up effects in male adolescent athletes. Pediatric Exercise Science. 2010; 22:266-77. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.22.2.266

Faigenbaum, A.D., Kang, J., Mcfarland, J., Bloom, J.M., Magnatta, J. Acute effects of different warm-up protocols on anaerobic performance in teenage athletes. Pediatric Exercise Science. 2006a; 18:53-64. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.18.1.64

Faigenbaum, A.D., Mcfarland, J.E., Schwerdtman, J.A., Ratamess, N.A., Kang, J., Hoffman, J.R. Dynamic warm up protocols, with and without a weighted vest, and fitness performance in high school female athletes. Journal of Athletic Training. 2006b; 41:357-63.

Faigenbaum, A.D., Belluci, M., Bernieri, A., Bakker, B., Hoorens, K. Acute effects of different warm-up protocols on fitness performance in children. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2005; 19:376-81. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Georg, L.A., Buchner, A. G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods. 2007; 39:175-91. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03193146

Febbraio, M.A., Carey, M.F., Snow, R.J. Influence of elevated muscle temperature on metabolism during intense, dynamic exercise. American Journal of Physiology. 1996; 271:1251-55. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1996.271.5.R1251

Gabbet, T.J., Sheppard, J.M., Pritchard-Peschek, K.R., Leveritt, M.D., Aldred, M.J. Influence of closed skill and open skill warm-ups on the performance of speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump and reactive agility in team sports athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2008; 22:1413-15. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181739ecd

Gelen, E. Acute effects of different warm-up methods on jump performance in children. Biology of Sport. 2011; 28:133-38. https://doi.org/10.5604/947456

Gray, S.R., Vito, G., Nimmo, M.A., Farina, D., Ferguson, R.A. Skeletal muscle ATP turnover and muscle fiber conduction velocity are elevated at higher muscle temperatures during maximal power output development in humans. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2006; 290:R376-82. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00291.2005

Gurd, B.J., Peters, S.J., Heigenhauser, G.J., Leblanc, P.J., Doherty, T.J., Paterson, D.H., Kowalchuk, J.M. Prior heavy exercise elevates pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and speeds O2 uptake kinetics during subsequent moderate-intensity exercise in healthy young adults. Journal of Physiology. 2006; 15:985-96. https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2006.112706

Hill-Haas, S.V., Dawson, B., Impellizzeri, F.M., Coutts, A. Physiology of Small-Sided Games Training in Football. Sports Medicine. 2011; 41:199-220. https://doi.org/10.2165/11539740-000000000-00000

Johnson, B.L., Nelson, J.K. Practical measurements for evaluation in physical education. Burgess publishing company, 1979.

Kovács, V.A., Fajcsák, Z., Gábor, A., Martos, E. School-based exercise program improves fitness, body composition and cardiovascular risk profile in overweight/obese children. Acta Physiologica Hungarica. 2009; 96:337-47. https://doi.org/10.1556/APhysiol.96.2009.3.7

Needham, R.A., Morse, C.I., Degens, H. The acute effect of different warm-up protocols on anaerobic performance in elite youth soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009; 23:2614-20. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b1f3ef

Pelegrini, A., Silva, D.A.S., Petroski, E.L., Glaner, M.F. Health-related physical fitness in Brasilian schoolchildren: data from the Brazil sport program. Brazilian Journal of Sport Medicine. 2011; 17:92-6.

Position Stand of the American College of Sports Medicine. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Medicine Science in Sports and Exercise. 2011; 43:1334-59. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb

Rassier, D.E., Macintosh, B.R. Coexistence of potentiation and fatigue in skeletal muscle. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2000; 33:499-508. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2000000500003

Raymer, G.H., Forbes, S.C., Kowalchuk, J.M., Thompson, R.T., Marsh, G.D. Prior exercise delays the onset of acidosis during incremental exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2007; 102:1799-805. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01151.2006

Robertson, R.J., Goss, F.L., Boer, N.F., Peoples, J.A., Foreman, A.J., Dabayebeh, I.M., Millich, N.B., Balasekaran, G., Riechman, S.E., Gallagher, J.D., Thompkins, T. Children's OMNI Scale of Perceived Exertion: mixed gender and race validation. Medicine Science in Sports and Exercise. 2000; 32:452-58. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200002000-00029

Rutkowski, J.J., Robertson, R.J., Tseh, W.D., Caputo, J.L., Keefer, D.J., Sutika, K.M., Morgan, D.W. Assessment of RPE signal dominance at slow-to-moderate walking speeds in children using the OMNI perceived exertion scale. Pediatric and Exercise Science. 2004; 16:334-42. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.16.4.334

Sale, D.G. Postativation potentiation: Role in human performance. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews. 2002; 30:138-43. https://doi.org/10.1097/00003677-200207000-00008

Stewart, I.B., Sleivert, G.G. The effect of warm up intensity on range of motion and anaerobic performance. The Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy. 1998; 27:154-61. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1998.27.2.154

Taylor, K.L., Sheppard, L.M., Lee, H., Lummer, N. Negative effect of static stretching restored when combined with a sport specific warm-up component. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2009; 12:657-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2008.04.004

Tomaras, E.K., Macintosh, B.R. Less is more: standard warm-up causes fatigue and less warm-up permits greater cycling power output. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2011; 111:228-35. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00253.2011

Utter, A.C., Robertson, R.J., Nieman, D.C., Kang, J. Children's OMNI Scale of Perceived Exertion: walking/running evaluation. Medicine Science and Sports Exercise. 2002; 34:139. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200201000-00021




DOI: https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.71.03