Effect of training on anthropometric, physiological and biochemical variables of U-19 volleyball players
The effect of training on anthropometric, physiological and biochemical variables of Indian male Under 19 years volleyball players was aimed in the present study. A total of 30 Indian male volleyball players (age range: 16.00-18.99 yr; mean age: 17.7 ± 0.5 yr) regularly playing competitive volleyball volunteered for this study. The training sessions were divided into 2 phases (a) Preparatory Phase (PP, 8 weeks) and (b) Competitive Phase (CP, 4 weeks). The training programme consist of aerobic, anaerobic and skill development, and were completed 4 hrs/day; 5 days/week. Selected variables were measured at zero level (baseline data, BD) and at the end of PP and CP. A significant increase (P<0.05) in anaerobic power, back and grip strength, serum urea and HDL-C; and significant decrease (P<0.05) in body fat, recovery heart rate, hemoglobin, triglyceride and LDL-C were noted after training. No significant change was observed in stature, body mass, LBM, HRmax, VO2max, uric acid and total cholesterol level of the players after the training. This would enable the coaches to assess the current status of an athlete and the degree of training adaptability and provide an opportunity to modify the training schedule accordingly to achieve the desired performance.
ALTENA TS, MICHAELSON JL, BALL SD, GUILFORD BL, THOMAS TR. Lipoprotein subfraction changes after continuous or intermittent exercise training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006; 38,367-372.
ASCI A, ACIKADA C. Power production among different sports with similar maximum strength. J Str Cond Res. 2007; 21, 10-16.
ASTRAND PO, RODHAL K. Textbook of work physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1986.
BAYIOS IA, BERGELES NK, APOSTOLIDIS NG, NOUTSOS KS, KOSKOLOU MD. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype differences of Greek elite female basketball, volleyball and handball players. J Sports Med Phy Fit.2006; 46, 271-280.
BOMPA TO. Periodization Training for Sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 1999.
BONING D, KLARHOLZ C, HIMMELSBACH B, HUTLER M, MAASSEN N. Extracellular bicarbonate and non-bicarbonate buffering against lactic acid during and after exercise. Eu J Appl Physiol. 2007; 100, 457-467.
BURNHAM TR, RUUD JD, MCGOWAN R. Bench press training program with attached chains for female volleyball and basketball athletes. Per Motor Skills. 2010; 110, 61-68.
CARBUHN AF, FERNANDEZ TE, BRAGG AF, GREEN JS, CROUSE SF. Sport and training influence bone and body composition in women collegiate athletes. JStr Cond Res. 2010; 24, 1710-1717.
DEGOUTTE F, JOUANEL P, BEGUE RJ, COLOMBIER M, LAC G, PEQUIGNOT JM. ET AL. Food restriction, performance, biochemical, psychological, and endocrine changes in judo athletes. Int J Sports Med. 2006; 27, 9-18.
DUNCAN MJ, WOODFIELD L, AL-NAKEEB Y. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players. Br J Sports Med. 2006; 40, 649-651.
DURNIN JVGA, WOMERSLEY J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skin fold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr. 1974; 32, 77-97.
EKELUND U, POORVLIET E, NILSON A, ET AL. Physical activity in relation to aerobic fitness and body fat in 14- to 15- year-old boys and girls. Eu J Appl Physiol. 2001; 85, 195-201.
FRIEDEWALD WT, LEVY RI, FREDRICKSON DS. Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972; 18, 499-501.
FUJITSUKA S, KOIKE Y, ISOZAKI A, NOMURA Y. Effect of 12 weeks of strenuous physical training on hematological changes. Mil Med. 2005; 170, 590-594.
GABBETT TJ. Do skill-based conditioning games offer a specific training stimulus for junior elite volleyball players? J Str Cond Res. 2008; 22, 509-517.
GABBETT T, GEORGIEFF B, ANDERSON S, COTTON B, SAVOVIC D, NICHOLSON L. Changes in skill and physical fitness following training in talent-identified volleyball players. J Str Cond Res. 2006; 20, 29-35.
GONZÁLEZ-RAVÉ JM, ARIJA A, CLEMENTE-SUAREZ V. Seasonal changes in jump performance and body composition in women volleyball players. J Str Cond Res. 2011; 25, 1492-1501.
HÄKKINEN K. Changes in physical fitness profile in female volleyball players during the competitive season. J Sports Med Phy Fit. 1993; 33, 223-232.
INBAR O, BAR-OR O, SKINNER J. S. The Wingate anaerobic test. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics. 1996.
JONSON BL, NELSON JK. Practical measurements for evaluation in physical education. London: Macmillan Publishing Co. 1996.
KARGOTICH S, KEAST D, GOODMAN C, BHAGAT CI, JOSKE DJ, DAWSON B. et al. Monitoring 6 weeks of progressive endurance training with plasma glutamine. Int J Sports Med. 2007; 28, 211-216.
KASABALIS A, DOUDA H, TOKMAKIDIS SP. Relationship between anaerobic power and jumping of selected male volleyball players of different ages. Per Motor Skills. 2005; 100, 607-614.
KELLEY GA, KELLEY KS. mpact of progressive resistance training on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pre Med. 2009; 48, 9-19.
KNEFFEL Z. Morphological and functional characteristics of the left ventricle in athletes of various ages, and performing at various levels. Orv Hetil, 2008; 149, 1085-1094.
LAWTON TW, CRONIN JB, LINDSELL RP. Effect of interrepetition rest intervals on weight training repetition power output. J Str Cond Res. 2006; 20, 172-176.
LIDOR R, ZIV G. Physical characteristics and physiological attributes of adolescent volleyball players-a review. Ped Exerc Sci. 2010; 22, 114-134.
MARQUES MC, TILLAAR R, VESCOVI JD, GONZÁLEZ-BADILLO JJ. Changes in strength and power performance in elite senior female professional volleyball players during the in-season: a case study. J Str Cond Res. 2008; 22, 1147-1155.
MARTINEK RG. Review of methods for determining inorganic phosphorus in biological fluids. J Am Med Tech. 1970; 32, 237.
MAZLOOM Z, SALEHI M, EFTEKHARI MH. Blood lipid and lipoprotein profile of female athletes with respect to their jobs and nutrients intake. Pa J Biol Sci. 2008; 11, 142-144.
MC ARDLE WD, KATCH FI, KATCH VL. Essentials of Exercise Physiology (3rd ed.) Philadelphia PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2006.
MUKHARJEE KL. Medical laboratory technology. A procedure manual for routine diagnostic tests. Vol I – III. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Pub Com Ltd. 1997.
NEUMAYR G, PFISTER R, HOERTNAGL H, MITTERBAUER G, PROKOP W, JOANNIDIS M. Renal function and plasma volume following ultra marathon cycling. Int J Sports Med. 2005; 26, 2-8.
NEWTON RU, ROGERS RA, VOLEK JS, HAKKINEN K, KRAEMER WJ. Four weeks of optimal load ballistic resistance training at the end of season attenuates declining jump performance of women volleyball players. J Str Cond Re. 2006; 20, 955-961.
NIELSEN, MS, WEBER RE. Antagonistic interaction between oxygenation-linked lactate and CO2 binding to human hemoglobin. Com Biochem Physiol Mol Int Physiol. 2007; 146, 429-434.
NOYES FR, BARBER-WESTIN SD, SMITH ST, CAMPBELL T. A training program to improve neuromuscular indices in female high school volleyball players. J Str Cond Res. 2011; 25, 2151-2160.
OKAZAKI FH, KELLER B, FONTANA FE, GALLAGHER JD. The relative age effect among female Brazilian youth volleyball players. Res Quar Exerc Sports, 2011; 82, 135-139.
PIALOUX V, MOUNIER R, PONSOT E. Effects of exercise and training in hypoxia on antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance. Eu J Clin Nutr. 2006; 60, 1345-1354.
POPADIC GACESA JZ, BARAK OF, GRUJIC NG. Maximal anaerobic power test in athletes of different sport disciplines. J Str Cond Res. 2009; 23, 751-755.
PORTAL S, RABINOWITZ J, ADLER-PORTAL D, BURSTEIN RP, LAHAV Y, MECKEL Y, NEMET D, ELIAKIM, A. Body fat measurements in elite adolescent volleyball players: correlation between skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, air-displacement plethysmography, and body mass index percentiles. J Pedia Endocrinol Metabol. 2010; 23, 395-400.
RADJEN S, RADJEN G, ZIVOTIĆ-VANOVIĆ M, RADAKOVIĆ S, VASILJEVIĆ N STOJANOVIĆ D. Effect of iron supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake in female athletes. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2011; 68, 130-135.
RANKOVIC G, MUTAVDZIC V, TOSKIC D, PRELJEVIC A, KOCIC M, NEDIN RANKOVIC G, & DAMJANOVIC N. Aerobic capacity as an indicator in different kinds of sports. Bos J Basic Med Sci. 2010; 10, 44-48.
REILLY T. Physiology of Sports. London: E & F.N. SPON. 1990.
SCHETTLER G, NUSSEI E. Manahmen zur Prävention der Arteriosklerose. Arb Med Soz Med Prav Med. 1975; 10, 25.
SHEPHARD RJ. Exercise Physiology. Philadelphia, PA, USA: BC Decker. 1987.
SIRI WE. The gross composition of the body. In C.A. Tobias, & J.H. Lawrence (ed.), Advances in Biological and Medical Physics. New York: Academic Press. 1956, 239-280.
SUHR F, PORTEN S, HERTRICH T, BRIXIUS K, SCHMIDT A, PLATEN P, ET AL. Intensive exercise induces changes of endothelial nitric oxide synthase pattern in human erythrocytes. Nitric Oxide. 2009; 20, 95-103.
URHAUSEN A, KINDERMANN W. Diagnosis of over training: what tools do we have? Sports Med. 2002; 32, 95-102.
WILMORE JH, COSTILL DL. Physiology of Sport and Exercise. (3rd ed.), Champaign IL: Human Kinetics. 2005.
WYBENGA R, DI GIORGIO J, PILEGGI VJ. Manual and automated methods for urea nitrogen measurement in whole serum. Clin Chem. 1971; 17, 891-895.
WYBENGA R, PILEGGI VJ, DIRSTINE PH, DI GIORGIO J. Direct manual determination of serum total cholesterol with a single stable reagent. Clin Chem. 1970; 16, 980-984.