Effect of training on anthropometric, physiological and biochemical variables of U-19 volleyball players
The effect of training on anthropometric, physiological and biochemical variables of Indian male Under 19 years volleyball players was aimed in the present study. A total of 30 Indian male volleyball players (age range: 16.00-18.99 yr; mean age: 17.7 ± 0.5 yr) regularly playing competitive volleyball volunteered for this study. The training sessions were divided into 2 phases (a) Preparatory Phase (PP, 8 weeks) and (b) Competitive Phase (CP, 4 weeks). The training programme consist of aerobic, anaerobic and skill development, and were completed 4 hrs/day; 5 days/week. Selected variables were measured at zero level (baseline data, BD) and at the end of PP and CP. A significant increase (P<0.05) in anaerobic power, back and grip strength, serum urea and HDL-C; and significant decrease (P<0.05) in body fat, recovery heart rate, hemoglobin, triglyceride and LDL-C were noted after training. No significant change was observed in stature, body mass, LBM, HRmax, VO2max, uric acid and total cholesterol level of the players after the training. This would enable the coaches to assess the current status of an athlete and the degree of training adaptability and provide an opportunity to modify the training schedule accordingly to achieve the desired performance.
Altena, T.S., Michaelson, J.L., Ball, S.D., Guilford, B.L., Thomas, T.R. Lipoprotein subfraction changes after continuous or intermittent exercise training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006; 38,367-372. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000185088.33669.fd
Asci, A., Acikada, C. Power production among different sports with similar maximum strength. J Str Cond Res. 2007; 21, 10-16.
Astrand, P.O., Rodhal, K. Textbook of work physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1986.
Bayios, I.A., Bergeles, N.K., Apostolidis, N.G., Noutsos, K.S., Koskolou, M.D. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype differences of Greek elite female basketball, volleyball and handball players. J Sports Med Phy Fit.2006; 46, 271-280.
Bompa, T.O. Periodization Training for Sports. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 1999.
Boning, D., Klarholz, C., Himmelsbach, B., Hutler, M., Maassen, N. Extracellular bicarbonate and non-bicarbonate buffering against lactic acid during and after exercise. Eu J Appl Physiol. 2007; 100, 457-467. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-007-0453-4
Burnham, T.R., Ruud, J.D., Mcgowan, R. Bench press training program with attached chains for female volleyball and basketball athletes. Per Motor Skills. 2010; 110, 61-68. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.110.1.61-68
Carbuhn, A.F., Fernandez, T.E., Bragg, A.F., Green, J.S., Crouse, S.F. Sport and training influence bone and body composition in women collegiate athletes. JStr Cond Res. 2010; 24, 1710-1717. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d09eb3
Degoutte, F., Jouanel, P., Begue, R.J., Colombier, M., Lac, G., Pequignot, J.M. et al. Food restriction, performance, biochemical, psychological, and endocrine changes in judo athletes. Int J Sports Med. 2006; 27, 9-18. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2005-837505
Duncan, M.J., Woodfield, L., Al-Nakeeb, Y. Anthropometric and physiological characteristics of junior elite volleyball players. Br J Sports Med. 2006; 40, 649-651. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2005.021998
Durnin, J.V.G.A., Womersley, J. Body fat assessed from total body density and its estimation from skin fold thickness: measurements on 481 men and women from 16 to 72 years. Br J Nutr. 1974; 32, 77-97. https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN19740060
Ekelund, U., Poorvliet, E., Nilson, A., et al. Physical activity in relation to aerobic fitness and body fat in 14- to 15- year-old boys and girls. Eu J Appl Physiol. 2001; 85, 195-201. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210100460
Friedewald, W.T., Levy, R.I., Fredrickson, D.S. Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972; 18, 499-501.
Fujitsuka, S., Koike, Y., Isozaki, A., Nomura, Y. Effect of 12 weeks of strenuous physical training on hematological changes. Mil Med. 2005; 170, 590-594. https://doi.org/10.7205/MILMED.170.7.590
Gabbett, T.J. Do skill-based conditioning games offer a specific training stimulus for junior elite volleyball players? J Str Cond Res. 2008; 22, 509-517. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181634550
Gabbett, T., Georgieff, B., Anderson, S., Cotton, B., Savovic, D., & Nicholson, L. (2006). Changes in skill and physical fitness following training in talent-identified volleyball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(1), 29–35. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-16814.1
González-Ravé, J.M., Arija, A., Clemente-Suarez, V. Seasonal changes in jump performance and body composition in women volleyball players. J Str Cond Res. 2011; 25, 1492-1501. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181da77f6
Häkkinen, K. Changes in physical fitness profile in female volleyball players during the competitive season. J Sports Med Phy Fit. 1993; 33, 223-232.
Inbar, O., Bar-Or, O., Skinner, J.S. The Wingate anaerobic test. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics. 1996.
Jonson, B.L., Nelson, J.K. Practical measurements for evaluation in physical education. London: Macmillan Publishing Co. 1996.
Kargotich, S., Keast, D., Goodman, C., Bhagat, C.I., Joske, D.J., Dawson, B. et al. Monitoring 6 weeks of progressive endurance training with plasma glutamine. Int J Sports Med. 2007; 28, 211-216. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-924218
Kasabalis, A., Douda, H., Tokmakidis, S.P. Relationship between anaerobic power and jumping of selected male volleyball players of different ages. Per Motor Skills. 2005; 100, 607-614. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.100.3.607-614
Kelley, G.A., Kelley, K.S. mpact of progressive resistance training on lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pre Med. 2009; 48, 9-19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.10.010
Kneffel, Z. Morphological and functional characteristics of the left ventricle in athletes of various ages, and performing at various levels. Orv Hetil, 2008; 149, 1085-1094. https://doi.org/10.1556/OH.2008.28320
Lawton, T. W., Cronin, J. B., & Lindsell, R. P. (2006). Effect of interrepetition rest intervals on weight training repetition power output. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(1), 172–176. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-13893.1
Lidor, R., Ziv, G. Physical characteristics and physiological attributes of adolescent volleyball players-a review. Ped Exerc Sci. 2010; 22, 114-134. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.22.1.114
Marques, M.C., Tillaar, R., Vescovi, J.D., González-Badillo, J.J. Changes in strength and power performance in elite senior female professional volleyball players during the in-season: a case study. J Str Cond Res. 2008; 22, 1147-1155. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816a42d0
Martinek, R.G. Review of methods for determining inorganic phosphorus in biological fluids. J Am Med Tech. 1970; 32, 237.
Mazloom, Z., Salehi, M., Eftekhari, M.H. Blood lipid and lipoprotein profile of female athletes with respect to their jobs and nutrients intake. Pa J Biol Sci. 2008; 11, 142-144. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2008.142.144
Mc Ardle, W.D., Katch, F.I., Katch, V.L. Essentials of Exercise Physiology (3rd ed.) Philadelphia PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2006.
Mukharjee, K.L. Medical laboratory technology. A procedure manual for routine diagnostic tests. Vol I – III. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Pub Com Ltd. 1997.
Neumayr, G., Pfister, R., Hoertnagl, H., Mitterbauer, G., Prokop, W., Joannidis, M. Renal function and plasma volume following ultra marathon cycling. Int J Sports Med. 2005; 26, 2-8. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-815717
Newton, R. U., Rogers, R. A., Volek, J. S., Hakkinen, K., & Kraemer, W. J. (2006). Four weeks of optimal load ballistic resistance training at the end of season attenuates declining jump performance of women volleyball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 20(4), 955–961. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-5050502x.1
Nielsen, M.S., Weber, R.E. Antagonistic interaction between oxygenation-linked lactate and CO2 binding to human hemoglobin. Com Biochem Physiol Mol Int Physiol. 2007; 146, 429-434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2006.12.004
Noyes, F.R., Barber-Westin, S.D., Smith, S.T., Campbell, T. A training program to improve neuromuscular indices in female high school volleyball players. J Str Cond Res. 2011; 25, 2151-2160. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181f906ef
Okazaki, F.H., Keller, B., Fontana, F.E., Gallagher, J.D. The relative age effect among female Brazilian youth volleyball players. Res Quar Exerc Sports, 2011; 82, 135-139. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2011.10599730
Pialoux, V., Mounier, R., Ponsot, E. Effects of exercise and training in hypoxia on antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance. Eu J Clin Nutr. 2006; 60, 1345-1354. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602462
Popadic Gacesa, J.Z., Barak, O.F., Grujic, N.G. Maximal anaerobic power test in athletes of different sport disciplines. J Str Cond Res. 2009; 23, 751-755. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a07a9a
Portal, S., Rabinowitz, J., Adler-Portal, D., Burstein, R.P., Lahav, Y., Meckel, Y., Nemet, D., Eliakim, A. Body fat measurements in elite adolescent volleyball players: correlation between skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, air-displacement plethysmography, and body mass index percentiles. J Pedia Endocrinol Metabol. 2010; 23, 395-400. https://doi.org/10.1515/jpem.2010.061
Radjen, S., Radjen, G., Zivotić-Vanović, M., Radaković, S., Vasiljević, N., Stojanović, D. Effect of iron supplementation on maximal oxygen uptake in female athletes. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2011; 68, 130-135. https://doi.org/10.2298/VSP1102130R
Rankovic, G., Mutavdzic, V., Toskic, D., Preljevic, A., Kocic, M., Nedin Rankovic, G., & Damjanovic, N. Aerobic capacity as an indicator in different kinds of sports. Bos J Basic Med Sci. 2010; 10, 44-48. https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2010.2734
Reilly, T. Physiology of Sports. London: E & F.N. SPON. 1990.
Schettler, G., Nussei, E. Maβnahmen zur Prävention der Arteriosklerose. Arb Med Soz Med Prav Med. 1975; 10, 25.
Shephard, R.J. Exercise Physiology. Philadelphia, PA, USA: BC Decker. 1987.
Siri, W.E. The gross composition of the body. In C.A. Tobias, & J.H. Lawrence (ed.), Advances in Biological and Medical Physics. New York: Academic Press. 1956, 239-280. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4832-3110-5.50011-X
Suhr, F., Porten, S., Hertrich, T., Brixius, K., Schmidt, A., Platen, P., et al. Intensive exercise induces changes of endothelial nitric oxide synthase pattern in human erythrocytes. Nitric Oxide. 2009; 20, 95-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2008.10.004
Urhausen, A., Kindermann, W. Diagnosis of over training: what tools do we have? Sports Med. 2002; 32, 95-102. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200232020-00002
Wilmore, J.H., Costill, D.L. Physiology of Sport and Exercise. (3rd ed.), Champaign IL: Human Kinetics. 2005.
Wybenga, R., Di Giorgio, J., Pileggi, V.J. Manual and automated methods for urea nitrogen measurement in whole serum. Clin Chem. 1971; 17, 891-895.
Wybenga, R., Pileggi, V.J., Dirstine, P.H., Di Giorgio, J. Direct manual determination of serum total cholesterol with a single stable reagent. Clin Chem. 1970; 16, 980-984.