Validity, reliability and exploratory factor analysis of the dropout scale in sport centres

Alberto Nuviala, María Rosario Teva-Villen, Alberto Grao-Cruces, Raquel Pérez-Ordás, Jerónimo García-Fernández, Román Nuviala

Abstract

Sport dropout is a complex problem, in which multiple reasons influence. One lacks an instrument of easy application for the sport centres, which there contributes relevant information about dropout motives, at the time that it expires with the properties that any measurement’s instrument must assemble. The aims of this work were to design, to validate and to verify the reliability of a useful instrument as way of evaluation of the motives of the dropout of the organized PA that provide the different sport centres. So, an inventory was made, a statistical analysis of the items was also made, so as an exploratory factor analysis and his validation and his reliability were analyzed. In conclusion, it can be stated that we have a valid and reliable tool to study the phenomenon of dropout in sport centres, which depends on five factors: leisure, enjoyment, satisfaction, practice and economic. The tool has 22 items in total, which makes its application easy.

Keywords

Sport services; Sport organizations; Dropout motives; Abandonment; Questionnaire

References

Almagro, B. J., Sáenz-López, P., & Moreno, J. A. (2010). Prediction of Sport Adherence Through the Influence of Autonomy-Supportive Coaching Among Spanish Adolescent Athletes. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 9(1), 8–14.

Annesi, J.J., Unruh, J.L. Effects of the coach approach® intervention on drop-out rates among adults initiating exercise programs at nine YMCAS over three years. Percept Mot Skills. 2007; 104: 459-466. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.104.2.459-466

Bandura, A. Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman. 1997.

Bara, M.G., Guillén, F. Motivos do abandono no esporte competitivo: um estudo retrospectivo. Rev Bras Educ Fís Esp. 2008; 22(4): 293-300.

Bearden, W.O., Teel, J.E. Selected determinants of consumer satisfaction and complaint reports. J Marketing. 1983; 20: 21-28. https://doi.org/10.2307/3151408

Bollen, K.A., Long, J.S. Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. 1993.

Brady, M., Knight, G.A., Cronin, J., Hult, G., Keillor, B. (2005). Removing the Contextual Lens: A Multinational, Multi-Setting Comparison of Service Evaluation Models. J Retailing. 2005; 81(3): 215-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2005.07.005

Carmines, E.G., Zeller, R.A. Reability and Validity Assessment. Londres: Sage. 1979. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412985642

Carretero-Dios, H., Pérez, C. Normas para el desarrollo y revisión de estudios instrumentales. Int J Clin Health Psychol. 2005; 5(3): 521-551.

Carretero-Dios, H., Pérez, C. Standards for the development and the review of instrumental studies: Considerations about test selection in psychological research. Int J Clin Health Psychol. 2007; 7: 863-882.

Cervelló, E.M., Escartí, A., Guzmán, J.F. Youth sport dropout from the achievement goal theory. Psicothema. 2007; 19: 65-71.

Church, T. Exercise in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Progr Cardiovasc Dis. 2011; 53(6), 412-418. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2011.03.013

Cortina, J.M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. J Appl Psychol. 1993; 78: 98-104. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.98

Deci, E.L., Ryan, R.M. Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum. 1985. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7

Deci, E.L., Ryan, R.M. The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behaviour. Psychol Inq. 2000; 11: 227-268. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01

Elosua, P. Sobre la validez de los tests. Psicothema. 2003; 15(2): 315-321.

Evans, K. Dropping out and hanging out: Girls and organised sports participation. Australasian Parks and Leisure. 2008; 11(2): 44-48.

Frederick-Recascino, C.M., Schuster-Smith, H. Competition and intrinsic motivation in physical activity: A comparison of two groups. J Sport Behav. 2003; 26: 240-254.

Gómez-López, M., Granero-Gallegos, A., Baena-Extremera, A., Ruiz-Juan, F. The abandonment of an active lifestyle within university students: Reasons for abandonment and expectations of re-engagement. Psychol Belg. 2011; 51(2): 155-175. https://doi.org/10.5334/pb-51-2-155

Gonçalves, C.E., Fingueiredo, A., Silva, M.J.C. Multidimensional analysis of dropout in youth basketball: 2-Year follow-up among Portuguese initiates. Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis. 2007; 12: 90-91.

Guthold, R., Ono, T., Strong, K. L., Chatterji, S., & Morabia, A. (2008). Worldwide variability in physical inactivity a 51-country survey. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(6), 486–494. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2008.02.013

Haase, A.M., Kinnafick, F.E. What factors drive regular exercise behaviour?: Exploring the concept and maintenance of habitual exercise. J Sport Exerc Psychol; 2007: 29: S165.

Heise, D.R., Bohrnstedt, G.W. Validity, Invalidity and Reliability. In EF Borgatta, G Bohrnstedt (Eds.). Sociological methodology (pp. 104-129). San Francisco: Jossey Bass. 1970. https://doi.org/10.2307/270785

Luque, T. Técnicas de análisis de datos en investigación de mercados. Madrid: Pirámide. 2000.

Huang, T.T., Ball, G.D., Franks, P.W. Metabolic syndrome in youth: Current issues and challenges. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007; 32: 13-22. https://doi.org/10.1139/h06-094

Jõesaar, H., Hein, V. Psychosocial determinants of young athletes' continued participation over time. Percept Mot Skills. 2011a; 113: 51-66. https://doi.org/10.2466/05.06.13.PMS.113.4.51-66

Jõesaar, H., Hein, V., Hagger, M.S. Peer influence on young athletes' need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and persistence in sport: A 12-month prospective study. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2011b; 12: 500-508. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.04.005

Lavie, C.J., Milani, R.V. Cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training in secondary coronary heart disease prevention. Progr Cardiovasc Dis. 2011; 53(6): 397-403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pcad.2011.02.008

Limstrand, T., Rehrer, N.J. Young people's use of sports facilities: a Norwegian study on physical activity. Scand J Public Health. 2008; 36(5): 452-459. https://doi.org/10.1177/1403494807088455

Macarro, J., Romero, C., Torres, J. Reasons why higher secondary school students in the province of Granada dropout of sports and organized physical activities. Revista de Educación. 2010; 353: 495-519.

Martin, D.S., O'neill, M. Scale development and testing: A new measure of cognitive satisfaction in sports tourism. Event Manag. 2010; 14: 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3727/152599510X12724735767471

Martínez, J.A., Martínez, L. Measuring perceived service quality in sports services; a first person approach. Rev Int Med Cienc Act Fís Deporte. 2008; 8(31): 244-255.

Martínez, J.A., Martínez, L. A customer management model in sports services; a system dynamics approach. Rev Int Med Cienc Act Fís Deporte. 2009; 9(36): 431-453.

Mcevily, B., Zaheer, A. Bridging ties: a source of firm heterogeneity in competitive capabilities. Strat Manag J. 1999; 20: 1133-1156. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199912)20:12<1133::AID-SMJ74>3.0.CO;2-7

Muyor, J.M., Águila, C., Sicilia, A., Orta, A. Assessing user's motivation in sport centers. Rev Int Med Cienc Act Fís Deporte. 2009; 9(33): 67-80.

Nicholls, J.G. The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1989.

Nunnally, J.C., Bernstein, I.J. Teoría psicométrica. Madrid: McGraw-Hill. 1995.

Palou, P., Ponseti, X., Gili, M., Borras, P.A., Vidal, J. Motivos para el inicio, mantenimiento y abandono de la práctica deportiva de los preadolescentes de la isla de Mallorca. Apunts. Educación Física y Deportes. 2005; 81: 5-11.

Ruiz, F., García, M.E., Díaz, A. Análisis de las motivaciones de práctica de actividad física y de abandono deportivo en la Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba). Anales de Psicología. 2007; 23: 152-166.

Ryan, R.M., Frederick, C.M., Lepes, D., Rubio, N., Sheldon, K.M. Intrinsic motivation and exercise adherence. Int J Sport Psychol. 1997. 28, 335-354.

Streiner, D.L., Norman, G.L. Health measurement scales: A practical guide to their development and use (2ª ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. 1995.

Tsitskari, E., Tsiotras, D., Tsiotras, G. Measuring service quality in sport services. Total Qual Manag Bus Excel. 2006; 17(5): 623-631. https://doi.org/10.1080/14783360600588190

Varela, J., Rial, A., García, E. Presentación de una escala de satisfacción con los servicios sanitarios de atención primaria. Psicothema. 2003; 15(4): 656-661.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.71.06