Balance training programs for soccer injuries prevention
Keywords:Soccer players, Proprioception, Frequency of balance training
The purpose of the study was to compare 2 different balance training programs, based on distinct exercise frequencies, with the aim of improving proprioceptive ability. Thirty eight professional soccer players, were randomly assigned into 3 groups: the A group, exercised with a frequency of 6 times per week, for 3 weeks, the B group exercised with a frequency of 3 times per week, for 6 weeks and the C group (control) did not follow a highly specific balance training, but only a standard soccer training. All participants were evaluated with the use of an electronic stability system (indices-deviations) and of a wooden balance board (time on balance) before (pre test) and after the training period (post test). Analyses of variance (ANOVAs), with repeated measures on the last factor, were conducted to determine effect of training programs and measures (pre-test, post-test) on balance test indices (SI, API, and MLI) and time on balance board. The results showed that both training groups improved their balance ability similarly (p<0.05) despite the different frequency of the balance training program. The authors proposed that balance training program can be applied in soccer players on a daily basis or at least 3 times per week, according to the demands of the training period.
Arnold, B.L., & Schmitz, R.J. (1998) Examination of balance measures produced by the Biodex Stability System. J Athletic Train, 33(4), 323-327.
Askling, C., Karlsson, J., & Thorstensson, A. (2003) Hamstring injury occurrence in elite soccer players after preseason strength training with eccentric overload. Scand J Med Sci Sport, 13(4), 244-250. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2003.00312.x
Bahr, R., Lian, O., & Bahr, I.A. (1997) A twofold reduction in the incidence of acute ankle sprains in volleyball after the introduction of an injury prevention program: a prospective cohort study. Scand J Med Sci Sport 7(3), 172-177. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.1997.tb00135.x
Biodex Stability System. Stability System, resource book. Shirley, New York, 1998.
Caraffa, A., Cerulli, G., Projetti, M., Aisa, G., & Rizzo, A. (1996) Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer. A prospective cοntrolled study of proprioceptive training. Knee Surg. Sports Traumatol. Arthrosc. 4(1), 19-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01565992
Chong, R.K., Ambrose, A., Carzoli, J., Hardison, L., & Jacobson, B. (2001) Source of improvement in balance control after a training program for ankle proprioception. Percept. Mot. Skills, 92(1), 265-72. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.2001.92.1.265
Dvorak, J. (2000) Football injuries and physical symptoms. Am J Sports Med 28, S69–S74. https://doi.org/10.1177/28.suppl_5.s-3
Gioftsidou, A., & Malliou, P. (2006) Preventing lower limb injuries in soccer players. Strength Cond J 28(1), 10-13. https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200602000-00001
Gioftsidou, A., Malliou, P., Pafis, G., Beneka, A., Godolias, G., & Maganaris C. (2006) The effects of soccer training and timing of balance training on balance ability. Eur J Appl Phys 96, 659-664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-005-0123-3
Goldie, P.A., Bach, T.M., & Evans, O.M. (1989) Force platform measures for evaluating postural control: Reliability and validity. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 70, 510–517.
Guskiewicz, K.M., & Perrin, D.H. (1996) Research and clinical applications of assessing balance. J Sport Rehabil 5, 45–63. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.5.1.45
Hanney, W. (2000) Proprioceptive training for ankle instability. Strength and Cond 22(5), 63-68. https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200010000-00018
Hoffman, M., & Payne, G. (1995) The Effects of Proprioceptive Ankle Disk Training on Healthy Subjects. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 21(2), 90-93. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.19220.127.116.11
Irrgang, J.J., Whitney, S., & Cox, E. (1994) Balance and proprioceptive training for rehabilitation of the lower extremity. J Sport Rehabil 3, 68–83. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.3.1.68
Lephard, S.M., Pincivero, D.M. & Henry, H. (1998) Learning effect and reliability of the Biodex stability system. In Biodex Stability System, resource book. Shirley, New York, 1998. pp 4-6.
Malliou, P., Gioftsidou, A., Pafis, G., Beneka, A., & Godolias, G. (2004) Proprioceptive training (balance exercises) reduces lower extremity injuries in young soccer players. J Back Musculoskelet 17, 101–104. https://doi.org/10.3233/BMR-2004-173-403
Morgan, B., & Oberlander, M. (2001) An Examination of Injuries in Major League Soccer. Am J Sports Med 29, 426-430. https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465010290040701
Olmsted, L.C., Carcia, C.R., Hertel, J., Shultz, S.J. (2002) Efficacy of the star excursion balance tests in detecting reach deficits in subjects with chronic ankle instability. J Athletic Train 37, 501–506.
Peterson, L., Chomiak, J., Graf-Baumann, T., & J. Dvorak. (2000) Incidence of football Injuries and Complains in Different Age Groups and Skill-Level Groups. Am J Sports Med 28(5S), S51-57. https://doi.org/10.1177/28.suppl_5.s-51
Ross, S.E., & Guskiewicz, K.M. (2004) Examination of static and dynamic postural stability in individuals with functionally stable and unstable ankles. Clin J Sport Med 14, 332–338. https://doi.org/10.1097/00042752-200411000-00002
Rozzi, S.L., Lephart, S.M., Sterner, R., & Kuligowski, L. (1999) Balance training for persons with functionally unstable ankles. J. Orthop Sports Phys Ther 29(8), 478-486. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1918.104.22.1688
Sammarco, G.J. (1995) Rehabilitation of the foot and ankle. Mosby-Year Book, Inc. St. Louis, Missouri.
Soderman, K., Werner, S., Pietila, T., Engstrom, B., & Alfredson. H. (2000) Balance board training: prevention of traumatic injuries of the lower extremites in female soccer players? A prospective randomized intervention study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 8, 356-363. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001670000147
Tippett, S., & Voight, M. (1995) Functional Progressions for Sport Rehabilitation. Human Kinetics.
Wedderkopp, N., Kaltoft, M., Lundgaard, B., Rosendahl, M., & Froberg. K. (1999) Prevention of injuries in young female players in European team handball. A prospective intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports 9, 41-47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.1999.tb00205.x
Zachazewski, J., Magee, D., & Quillen, W. (1996) Athletic injuries and rehabilitation. W.B. Saunders Company, pp. 236-261.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2012 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.