Effects of interval time between high-intensity intermittent aerobic exercise on strength performance: Analysis in individuals with different training background
This study aimed to analyze the effect of the time interval after high-intensity aerobic exercise on strength performance in individuals with different training backgrounds. Participants (n = 27) were divided into three groups according to their training backgrounds (aerobic, strength or concurrent) and submitted to eight sessions: (1) determination of the peak velocity (Vpeak) during the incremental treadmill test to exhaustion and familiarization of the evaluation of maximum strength (1RM) for the half-squat; (2) 1RM determination; and (3-8) randomly assigned experimental sessions consisting of either a strength exercise (SE), four sets at 80% of the 1RM, in which maximum number of repetitions (MNR) and the total volume performed (TV) was computed, and five sessions consisting of high-intensity intermittent aerobic exercise (100% of Vpeak - 1 min:1 min) totaling 5 km, followed by a SE with varying recovery intervals between activities (30, 60 minutes, 4, 8, and 24 hours). Comparisons for MNR and TV were made using two-way variance analysis (group and time interval) with repeated measures in the second factor. When significant differences were detected (P < 0.05), a Bonferroni and Dunnet post-hoc test were used. There was an effect of group for MNR, with the Aerobic Group performing a higher MNR compared to Strength Group (P = 0.002). Moreover, there was an effect of the time interval for MNR and TV, with reduction after 30 (P < 0.001 for both variables) and 60 minutes intervals (P = 0.035; P = 0.007, respectively) compared to the control condition. Thus, it is concluded that the drop in performance related to the SE activity occurred with the same magnitude and time interval for each of the groups.
BAKER D. The effects of an in-season of concurrent training on the maintenance of maximal strength and power in professional and college-aged rugby league football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2001; 15:172-177. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200105000-00004
BALABINS CP, PSARAKIS CH, MOUKAS M, VASSILIOU, MP, EHRAKIS, PK.. Early Phase Changes by Concurrent Endurance and Strength Training. J Strength Cond Res. 2003; 17:393-401. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200305000-00030
BELL GJ, SYROTUIK D, MARTIN TP. Effect of concurrent strength and endurance training on skeletal muscle properties and hormone concentrations in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000; 81:418-427. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050063
BENTLEY DJ, SMITH PA, DAVIE JA, ZHOU, S. Muscle activation of the knee extensors following high intensity endurance exercise in cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000; 81:297-302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050046
BIJKER KE, GROOT G, HOLLANDER AP. Differences in leg muscle activity during running and cycling in humans. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2002; 87:556-561. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0663-8
BILLAUT F, BASSET FA, GIACOMONI M, LEMAÎTRE F, TRICOT V, FALGAIRETTE G. Effect of high-intensity intermittent cycling sprints on neuromuscular activity. Int J Sports Med. 2006; 27:25-30.
Bransford DR., HOWLEY ET. Oxygen cost of running in trained and untrained men and women. Med Sci Sport Exer.1977; 9:41-44. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-197721000-00007
BROWN LE, WEIR J. ASEP procedures recommendation I: Accurate assessment of muscular strength and power. J Exerc Physiol Online. 2001; 4:1–21.
COSTILL DL, COYLE EF, FINK WF, LESMES GR, WITZMANN FA. Adaptations in skeletal muscle following strength training. J Appl Physiol. 1979; 46:96-99. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1922.214.171.124
CRAIG BW, LUCAS J, POHLMAN R, STELLING, H. The effects of running, weightlifting and a combination of both on growth hormone release. J Appl Sport Sci Res. 1991; 5:198-203.
DENADAI BS, CORVINO RB, GRECO CC. Effect of a previous high intensity running exercise on isokinetic muscular strength in individuals with different training backgrounds. Isokinet Exerc Sci. 2010; 18:15-21. doi:10.3233/IES-2010-0362
DE SOUZA EO, TRICOLI V, FRANCHINI E, PAULO AC, REGAZZINI M, UGRINOWITSCH C. Acute effect of two aerobic exercise modes on maximum strength and strength endurance. J Strength Cond Res. 2007; 21:1286-1290. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200711000-00053
DOCHERTY D, SPORER B. A proposed model for examining the interference phenomenon between concurrent aerobic and strength training. Sports Med. 2000; 30:385-394. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200030060-00001
GARRANDES F, COLSON SS, PENSINI M, SEYNNES O, LEGROS P. Neuromuscular fatigue profile in endurance-trained and power-trained athletes. Med Sci Sport Exer. 2007; 39:149-158. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000240322.00782.c9
GERGLEY JC. Comparison of two lower-body modes of endurance training on lower-body strength development while concurrently training. J Strength Cond Res. 2009; 23:979-987. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a0629d
GOLLNICK PD, ARMSTRONG RB, SAUBERT IV CW, PIEHL K, SALFIN B. Enzyme activity and fiber composition in skeletal muscle of untrained and trained men. J Appl Physiol. 1972; 33:312-319. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19126.96.36.1992
Häkkinen K, Myllyiä, E. Acute effects of muscle fatigue and recovery on force production and relaxation in endurance, power and strength athletes. J Sport Med Phys Fit. 1990; 30:5-12.
HÄKKINEN K, ALEN M, KRAEMER WJ, GOROSTIAGA E, IZQUIERDO M, RUSKO H. Neuromuscular adaptations during concurrent strength and endurance training versus strength training. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2003; 89:42-52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-002-0751-9
HAMILTON AL, NEVILL ME, BROOKS S, WILLIAMS C. Physiological responses to maximal intermittent exercise: differences between endurance-trained runners and game players. J Sport Sci. 1991; 9:371-382. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419108729897
HASKELL WL, LEE IM, PATE RR, POWELL KE, BLAIR SN, FRANKLIN BA. Physical Activity and Public Health: Updated Recommendation for Adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sport Exer. 2007; 39:1423–1434. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e3180616b27
HICKSON RC. Interference of strength development by simultaneously training for strength and endurance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1980; 45:255-263. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00421333
HOLLOSZY JO, COYLE EF. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences. J Appl Physiol. 1984; 56:831-838. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19188.8.131.521
KRAEMER WJ, PATTON JF, GORDON SE, HARMAN EA, DESCHENES MR, REYNOLDS K. Compatibility of high-intensity strength and endurance training on hormonal and skeletal muscle adaptations. J Appl Physiol. 1995; 78: 976-989. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19184.108.40.2066
LATTIER G, MILLET GY, MARTIN A, MARTIN V. Fatigue and recovery after high intensity exercise. Part II: recovery interventions. Int J Sports Med. 2004; 25:509-515. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2004-820946
LEVERITT M, ABERNETHY PJ, BARRY BK, LOGAN, PA. Concurrent strength and endurance training: a review. Sports Med. 1999; 28:413-427. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199928060-00004
LEVERITT M, MACLAUGHLIN H, ABERNETHY PJ. Changes in leg strength 8 and 32 h after endurance exercise. J Sport Sci. 2000; 18:865-871. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404100750017797
LEVERITT M, ABERNETHY PJ. Acute effects of high intensity endurance exercise on subsequent resistance activity. J Strength Cond Res. 1999; 13:47-51. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-199902000-00009
MORGAN DW, BRANSFORD DR, COSTILL DL, DANIELS JT, HOWLEY ET, KRAHENBUHL GS. Variation in the aerobic demand of running among trained and untrained subjects. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1995; 27:404-409. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199503000-00017
OSTERNIG LR, HAMILL J, LANDER JE, ROBERTSON R. Co-activation of sprinter and distance runner muscles in isokinetic exercise. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1986: 18:431-435.
Paasuke M, Ereline J, Gapeyeva H. Neuromuscular fatigue during repeated exhaustive submaximal static contractions of knee extensor muscles in endurance-trained, power-trained and untrained men. Acta Physiol Scand. 1999; 166:319-326. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-201x.1999.00576.x
REILLY R, MORRIS T, WHYTE G. The specificity of training prescription and physiological assessment: a review. J Sport Sci. 2009; 27:575-589. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410902729741
SALE DG, MACDOUGAL JD, JACOBS I, GARNER S. Interaction between concurrent strength and endurance training. J Appl Physiol. 1990; 68:260-270. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19220.127.116.110
SCHILING BK, REED JP, MURLASITS Z. Acute neuromuscular and metabolic responses to concurrent endurance and resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2012; May 24. [Epub ahead of print]. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825c2d3e
SPORER BC, WENGER H. Effects of aerobic exercise on strength performance following various periods of recovery. J Strength Cond Res. 2003; 17:638-644. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200311000-00003
TAN B. Manipulating resistance training program variables to optimize maximum strength in men: a review. J Strength Cond Res. 1999; 13:289-304. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-199908000-00019
TOMLIN DL, WENGER HA. The relationship between aerobic fitness, power maintenance and oxygen consumption during intense intermittent exercise. J Sci Med Sport. 2002; 5:194-203. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(02)80004-4