The effects of glutamine supplementation on performance and hormonal responses in non-athlete male students during eight week resistance training
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glutamine supplementation on performance, and hormonal changes during an 8-week resistance training program in non athlete male students. Thirty healthy non athlete male (age 21.25 ± 1.6 years, height 173.2 ± 3.2 cm, body mass 72.8 ± 2.8 kg, VO2max 43.48± 2.38 ml·kg-1·min-1) were randomly divided into a glutamine supplementation (GL) group (n=15), and a placebo (PL) group (n=15). Each group was given either glutamine or a placebo in a double blind manner to be taken orally for eight weeks (0.35 g/kg/day). GL and PL groups performed the same weight training program 3 days, each week for 8 weeks. The training consisted of 3 sets of 8 repetitions, and the initial weight was 80% of the pre-1RM. Subjects were tested for performance and blood hormone concentrations before and after the 8-week period. Both groups increased their performance however the GL group showed significantly greater increases in upper and lower body strength, explosive muscular power, blood testosterone, GH and IGF-1 when compared to the PL group; however, cortisol concentrations were significantly more reduced in GL group when compared to the PL group. It can, therefore, be concluded that within 8 weeks glutamine supplementation during resistance training was found to increase performance (explosive muscular power, muscle strength) and improved body composition (increased body mass, fat-free mass and reduced body fat).
AHTIAINEN JP, PAKAINEN A, ALEN M, KRAEMER WJ, HAKKINEN K. Short vs. long rest period between the sets in hypertrophic resistance training: inXuence on muscle strength, size, and hormonal adaptations in trained men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2005; 19:572–582.
AHTIAINEN JP, PAKAINEN A, ALEN M, KRAEMER WJ, HAKKINEN K. Muscle hypertrophy, hormonal adaptations and strength development during strength training in strength-trained and untrained men. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2003; 89: 555–563.
AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SPORTS MEDICINE. Position stand on the appropriate intervention for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Journal of Medicine Science Exercise. 2001; 33(12): 2145-2156.
ANTONIO J, SANDERS M, KALMAN D, WOODGATE D, STREET C. The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2002; 16: 157-160.
ANTONIO J, STREET C. Glutamine: a potentially useful supplement for athletes. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology. 1999; 24:1-14.
BANG P, NYGREN J, CARLSSON-SKWIRUT C, THORELL A, LJUNGQVIST O, Postoperative induction of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 proteolytic activity: relation to insulin and insulin sensitivity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 1998; 83: 2509–2515.
BOWTELL JL, GELLY K, JACKMAN ML, PATEL A, SIMEONI M, RENNIE MJ. Effect of oral glutamine on whole body carbohydrate storage during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1999; 86: 1770-1777.
BURKE DG, CHILIBECK PD, DAVIDSON KS, CANDOW DG, FARTING J, SMITH-PALMER T. The effect of whey protein supplementation with and without creatine monohydrate combined with resistance training on lean tissue mass and muscle strength. International Journal Sport Nutrition Exercise Metabolism. 2001; 11: 349-64.
CANDOW DG, CHILIBECK PD, BURKE DG, DAVISON DS, SMITH-PALMER T. Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2001; 86:142-149.
CANAVAN PK, VESCOVI JD. Evaluation of power prediction equations: peak vertical jumping power in women. Medicine Science Sport Exercise. 2004; 36: 1589-1593.
DABIDI-ROSHAN V, BARZEGARZADEH H. The Effect of the Short-Term Glutamine
Supplementation on Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Changes in Immune System of Active Boys. World Journal of Sport Sciences. 2009; 2 (4): 222-230.
DEMLING R, DESANTI L. The anabolic steroid oxandrolone reverses the wound healing impairment in corticosteroid-dependent burn and wound patients. Wounds. 2001; 13:203–208.
FLECK SJ, KRAEMER WJ. Designing resistance training programs. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 2004.
FOLKE H, INGMAR W JAN W. Effects of Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 on Postoperative Muscle and Substrate Metabolism. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism. 2010; 10: 1-9.
FRYBURG D. Insulin-like growth factor I exerts growth hormone- and insulin-like actions on human muscle protein metabolism, American Journal of Physiology. 1994; 267:331–336.
GLELSON M. Dosing and efficacy of glutamine supplementation in human exercise and sport training. Journal of Nutrition. 2008; 138(10):2045-2049.
HADLEY JS, Hinds CJ. Anabolic strategies in critical illness. Current Opinion Pharmacology. 2002; 2:700–707.
HERBST KL, BHASIN S. Testosterone action on skeletal muscle. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolism Care. 2004; 7:271-277.
HOFFMAN JR. Norms for fitness, performance and health. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics. 2006.
KARGOTICH S, KEAST D, GOODMAN C, BHAGAT CI, JOSKE DJ, DAWSON B, MORTON AR. Monitoring 6 weeks of progres-sive endurance training with plasma glutamine. International Journal of Sports Medicine. 2007; 28(3):211-216.
KEVIN J, FINN, ROBIN L, MONA RT. Glutamine supplementation did not benefit athletes during short-term weight reduction. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2003; 2: 163-168.
KIMBROUGHR TD, SHEMAN S, ZIEGLER TR, SCHELTINGA M, WILMORE DW, Insulin-like growth factor-I response is comparable following intravenous and subcutaneous administration of growth hormone. Journal of Surgical Research. 1991; 51 (6): 472–476.
KRAEMER WJ, HATWELD DL, SPIRING BA, VINGREN JL, FRAGALA MS, HO JY, VOLEK JS, ANDERSON JM, MARESH CM. Effects of a multi-nutrient supplement on exercise performance and hormonal responses to resistance exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2007; 101:637-646.
KRAEMER WJ, RATAMESS N. Hormonal responses and adaptations to resistance exercise and training. Journal Sport Medicine. 2005; 35(4):339-361.
LACEY JM, WILMORE DW. Is glutamine a conditionally essential amino acid? Journal of Nutrition, Review. 1990; 48:297-309.
LAGRANHA CJ, LEVADA-PIRES AC, SELLITTI DF, PROCOPIO J, CURI R, PITHON-CURI TC. The effect of glutamine supplementation and physical exercise on neutrophil function. Journal of Amino Acids, Review. 2007; 34(3):337-346.
LOW SY, TAYLOR PM, RENNIE MJ. Responses of glutamine transport in cultured rat skeletal muscle to osmotically induced changes in cell volume. Journal of Physiology (London). 1996; 492(3), 877-885.
LOHMAN TG, ROCHE AF, MARTORELL R. Anthropometric Standardization Reference Manual. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 1998.
MARCELO MR, MARIA CARLONIA B, INAR AC, IVANIR SO, PIRES, PRIMAVERA B, JULIO T. Effects of Dietary Glutamine Supplementation on the Body Composition and Protein Status of Early-Weaned Mice Inoculated with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. Journal of Nutrients. 2011; 3(9): 792–804.
MAYHEW JL, BALL TE, ARNOLD TE, BOWEN JC. Relative muscular endurance as a predictor of bench press strength in college men and women. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 1992; 6: 200-206.
MELVIN W, Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Amino Acids. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2005; 2(2): 63-67.
OLSEN LS, AAGAARD P, KADI F, TOFEKOVIC G, VERNEY J, OLSEN JL, SUETTA C, KJAER M. Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training. Journal of Physiology. 2006; 573(2):525- 534.
PHILLIPS GC. Glutamine: the nonessential amino acid for performance enhancement. Current Sports Medicine Reports. 2007; 6(4):265-8.
POLLOCK ML, JACKSON AS. Research progress in validation of clinical methods of assessing body composition. Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 1984; 16: 606-613.
RUSSELL-JONES DL, UMPLWBY AM, T. R. HENNESSY TR, BOWES SB, SHOJAEE-MORADIE F, HOPKINS KD, JACKSON NC, KELLY JM, JONES RH, SONKSEN PH. Use of a leucine clamp to demonstrate that IGF-I actively stimulates protein synthesis in normal humans. American Journal of Physiology. 1994; 267(4): 591–598.
SHABERT JK, WINSLOW C, LACEY JM, WILMORE DW. Glutamine-antioxidant supplementation increases body cell mass in AIDS patients with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Journal of Nutrition. 1999; 15(11-12): 860-864.
SIRI ME. Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods in techniques for measuring body composition. Washington, DC: National Academy of Science, National Research Council. 1961.
STARON RS, KARAPONDO DL, KRAEMER WJ, FRY AC, GORDON SE, FALKEL JE, HAGERMAN FC, HIKIDA RS. Skeletal muscle adaptations during early phase of heavy resistance training in men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1994; 76:1247–1255.
VAN G, BAXTER RC, WEEKERS F, WOUTERS P, BOWERS CY, VELDHUIS JD. A paradoxical gender dissociation within the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor I axis during protracted critical illness. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &Metabolism. 2000; 85(1): 183–192.
VARNIER M, LEESE GP, THOMPSON J, RENNIE MJ. Stimulatory effect of glutamine on glycogen accumulation in human skeletal muscle. American Journal of Physiology. 1995; 269: 309-315.
VOLE JS, WILLIAM JK, JILL AB, T. INCLEDO, BOETES M. Testosterone and cortisol in relationship to dietary nutrients and resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology. 1997; 82: 49-54.
WALSH NP, BLANNIN AK, BISHOP NC, ROBSON PJ, GLEESON M. Effect of oral glutamine supplentation on human neutrophil lipopolysaccharide-stimulated degtanulation following prolonged exercise. International Journal of Sport Nutrition. 2000; 10:39-50.
WELBOURNE TC. Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1995; 61:1058-1061.
WERNERMAN J. Clinical use of glutamine supplementation. Journal of Nutrition. 2008; 138: 2040-2044.
YAN GU, ZHAO-HAN WU. The anabolic effects of recombinant human growth hormone and glutamine on parenterally fed, short bowel rats. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2002; 8(4):752-757.
ZOU XT. ZHENG GH, FANG XJ. JIANG JF. Effects of glutamine on growth performance of weanling piglets. Czech Journal of Animal Science. 2006; 10: 444–448.