Levels of physical activity in Spanish adolescents (aged 12 to 14) measured by accelerometry

Elena Ramirez Rico, Emilia Fernández García, Julia Blández Ángel

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to determine whether Spanish adolescents studied attain a level of physical activity which complies with current guidelines for this age group.90 adolescents (54 girls and 36 boys) aged 12 to 14 took part in the study. Information was gathered on their activity for a week, using accelerometry.The results show that these young people do not attain the levels of physical activity currently recommended, the results for girls being lower.The results are somewhat better if we include other less demanding patterns of activity.The findings suggest that boys and girls of this age exhibit a level of physical activity which is closer to the recommendations of the early 1990s than the levels currently recommended for the age group.


Keywords

Physical activity; Gender; Adolescents; Accelerometry

References

Armstrong N & Mcmanus A. Children's fitness and physical activity a challenge for physical education. Br J Phys Educ. 1994; 25(1): 20-25.

Aznar S & Webster T. Actividad física y salud en la infancia y la adolescencia. Guía para todas las personas que participan en su educación. Madrid: Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo y Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, 2006.

Biddle S, SALLIS, JF, CAVILL NA. Young and active? Young people and health enhancing physical activity. Evidence and implication. London: Health Education Authority, 1998.

Biddle S, Soos I, Hamar P, Sandor I, Simonek J, Karsai I. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in youth. Data from three Central-Eastern European Countries. Eur J Sci Sport. 2009; 9(5), 295-301. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390902829234

CALE L & ALMOND L. Physical activity levels of secondary-aged children: a review. J Health Educ. 1992; 51(4): 192-197. https://doi.org/10.1177/001789699205100410

CALIFORNIA PROJECT LEAN. Jump Start because keeping active and eating smart give students a better start. California, 2006.

CAVILL N, BIDDLE S, SALLIS JF. Health enhancing physical activity for young people: Statement of the United Kingdom expert consensus conference. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2001; 13(1): 12-25. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.13.1.12

CDC. How much physical activity do children need? Date of query: 7 March 2010. Available in: http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/guidelines/children.html. 2008.

Department of Health PA. Health Improvement and prevention: Al least five a Hjek: Evidence on the Impact of Physical Activity and its Relationship with Health. A Report from the Chief Medical Officer. London: Department of Health, 2004

DOWDA M, PATE R, SALLIS JI, FREEDSON PS, TAYLOR WC, SIRARD JR, TROST SG. Agreement between student-reported and proxy-reported physical activity questionnaires. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2007; 19(3): 310-318. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.19.3.310

EVENSON KR, CATELLIER DJ, GILL K, ONDRAK KS, MCMURRAY RG. Calibration of two objective measures of physical activity for children. J Sport Sci.2008; 24(14):1557-1565. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410802334196

Faucette N, SALLIS JF, MZKENZIE T, ALCARAZ J, KOLODY B, NUGENT P. Comparison of fourth grade students´ out-of- school physical activity levels and choices by gender: project Spark. J Health Educ. 1995; 26(2):S82-S90. https://doi.org/10.1080/10556699.1995.10603153

Fernández E, Vázquez B, CAMACHO MJ, SÁNCHEZ F, MARTÍNEZ DE QUEL O, RODRÍGUEZ I, RUBIA A, AZNAR S. La inclusión de la actividad física y el deporte en el estilo de vida de las mujeres adolescentes: estudio de los factores clave y pautas de intervención en las mujeres jóvenes y las actividades físico-deportivas nº46. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Deportes. 2006.

FREEDSON PS, MELANSON E, SIRARD J. Calibration of the computer science and applications, Inc. Accelerometer. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1998; 30(5):777-781. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199805000-00021

GARCIA AW, PENDER NJ, ANTANAKOS CL, RONIS DL. Changes in physical activity beliefs and behaviours of boys and girls across the transition to junior high school. J Adolescent Health. 1998; 22(5):394-402. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(97)00259-0

GRONTVED A, PENDERSEN S, ANDERSEN LB, KRISTENSEN PL, MOLLER NC, FROBER GK. Personal Characteristics and Demographic Factors Associated with objectively measured physical activity in children attending preschool. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2009; 21(2):209-219. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.21.2.209

HBSC. Young people´s health in context health behavior in school-aged children (HBSC) study: international report from the 2001/2002 survey. Health policy from children and adolescents nº4. Denmark: Worl health organization. Date of query: 4 July 2009. Avalaible in: http://www.euro.who.int/eprise/main/who/InformationSources/Publications/Catalogue/20040601_1. 2004.

HBSC. The health behaviours in school-age children (HBSC) 2005/2006 survey school report. Denmark: Worl health organization. Date of query: 5 November 2009. Avalaible in: http://www.euro.who.int/Document/E91416.pdf. 2008.

HEATH GW, PRATT M, WARREN CW, KANN L. Physical activity patterns in American high school students. Achieve Pediatric Adolescent Medicine. 1994; 148(11):1131-1136. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.1994.02170110017003

HERNÁNDEZ LA. Análisis de la actividad física de los escolares de primaria y secundaria de la ciudad de Zaragoza. Tesis doctoral. 2009.

HOWELL MF, SALLIS JF, KOLODY B, MCKENZIE TL. Children's physical activity choices: a development analysis of gender, intensity levels, and time. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 1999; 11(2):158-168. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.11.2.158

JAGO R, BARANOWSKI T, THOMPSON D, BARANOWSKI J, GREAVES KA. Sedentary Behavior, not TV viewing, predicts physical activity among 3 to-year-old children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2005; 17(4):364-376. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.17.4.364

JANZ KF. Validation of the CSA accelerometer for assessing children's physical activity. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1994; 26(2):369-375.

JANZ KF, WITT J, MAHONEY L. The stability of children's physical activity as measured by accelerometry and self-report. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1995; 27(9):1326-1332. https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-199509000-00014

KELLY LA, REILL JJ, JACKSON DM, MONTGOMERY C, GRANT S, PATON JY. Tracking Physical activity and sedentary behavior in young children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2007; 19(1):51-60. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.19.1.51

LOPES VP, VASQUES CMS, MAIA JAR, FERREIRA JC. Habitual physical activity levels in childhood and adolescence assessed with accelerometry. J Sport Med Phys Fit. 2007; 47(2):217-222.

Martínez-Gómez D, WELK GL, CALLE ME, MARCOS A, VEIGA OL. Preliminary evidence of physical activity levels measured by accelerometer in Spanish adolescents. The AFINOS Study. Nutr Hosp. 2009; 24(2):226-232.

MCMURRAY RG, HARRELL JS, WANG Z, BANGDIWALA SI. The influence of habitual physical activity levels on the change in weight status as Routh becomes adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2005; 17(1):75-76.

MELANSON EL, FREEDSON PS. Validity of the computer science and applications, Inc, (CSA) activity monitor. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1995; 27(6):934-940.

PATE RR, FREEDSON RS, SALLIS JF, TAYLOR WC, SIRARD J, TROST S, DOWDA M. Compliance with physical activity guidelines: prevalence in a population of children and youth. Ann Epidemiol. 2002; 12(5):303-308. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1047-2797(01)00263-0

PATE RR, LONG BJ, HEATH G. Descriptive Epidemiology of physical activity in adolescents. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 1994; 6(4):434-447. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.6.4.434

PEIRÓ-VELERT C, DEVIS J, BELTRAN-CARRILLO VJ, FOX KR. Variability of Spanish adolescents´ physical activity patterns by seasonality, day of the week and demographic factors. Eur J Sci Sport. 2008; 8(3):163-172. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390802020868

PENPRAZE V, REILLY JJ, MACLEAN CM, MONTGOMERY C, KELLY LA, PATON JY, AITCHISON T, GRANT S. Monitoring of physical activity in young children: How much is enough? Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2006; 18(4):483-491. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.18.4.483

Pieron M, Ruiz F, GARCÍA ME, DÍAZ A. Análisis de la práctica de actividad físico-deportivas en alumnos de ESO y ESPO de las provincias de Almería, Granada y Murcia, por un índice compuesto de participación. Fitness & Performance Journal. 2008; 7(1):52-58.

REILLY JJ, JACKSON DM, MONTGOMERY C, KELLY LA, SLATER C, GRANT S. Total energy expenditure and physical activity in young. Scottish children: mixed longitudinal study. Lancet. 2004; 363(9404):211-212. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)15331-7

RIDDOCH CJ, ANDERSEN ÑB, WEDDERKOPP N, HARRO M, KLASSON-HEGGEBO L, SARDINHA LB, COOPER AR, EKELUND V. Physical activity levels and patterns of 9 and 15 yr-old Eoropean children. Med Sci Sport Exer. 2004; 36(1):86-92. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000106174.43932.92

SALLIS JE, MCKENZIE TL, ELDER JP, HOY PL, GALATI T, BERRY CC, ZIVE MM, NADER PR. Sex and ethnic differences in children's physical activity: discrepancies between self-report and objective measure. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 1998; 10(3):302-314. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.10.3.277

SALLIS JF & PATRICK K. Physical activity guidelines for adolescents: consensus statement. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 1994; 6(4):302-314. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.6.4.302

SERRA JR. Estudio epidemiológico de los niveles de actividad física en los estudiantes de ESO. Apunts. 2006; 83:25-34.

SERRA JR. Factores que influencia la práctica de actividad física en la población adolescente de la provincia de Huesca. Tesis doctoral. 2008.

TROIANO RP, BERRIGAN D, DOOD KW, MASSE LC, TILERT T, MCDOWELL M. Physical activity in the Unite Stated Measured by Accelerometer. Med Sci Sport Exer. 2008; 40(1):181-188. https://doi.org/10.1249/mss.0b013e31815a51b3

TROST SG, MORGAN AM, SAUNDERS R, FELTON G, WARD DS, PATE RR. Children´s understanding of the concept of physical activity. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2000; 12(3):293-299. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.12.3.293

TROST SG, WARD DS, MOOREHEAD SM, WATSON PD, RINER W, BURKE JR. Validity of the computer science and applications (CSA) activity monitor in children. Med Sci Sport Exer. 1998; 30(4):629-633. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199804000-00023

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy people 2010. Washington. D.C: U. S. Government Printing Office. 2000.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. We Can. Como las familias encuentran el equilibrio: Un manual para los padres de familia. California. 2005.

Vázquez B, Fernández E, Ferro S. Educación Física y Género. Instituto de la Mujer. Ministerio de Educación y Asuntos Sociales. Madrid: Gymnos, 2000.

WELK GI, CORBIN CB, DALE D. Measurement issues in the assessment of physical activity in children. Res Q Exercise Sport. 2000; 71(2):59-73. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2000.11082788




DOI: https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2012.82.08