Testing protocol for monitoring upper-body strength using medicine balls
The purpose of this paper is to present a specific testing protocol for monitoring upper-body strength using medicine ball throws. The protocol is composed of three tests: throw without countermovement, throw with countermovement, and throw with countermovement of a medicine ball drop. These tests are done from a lying position and involve throwing overhead with both arms. This paper provides the characteristics of the tests (warm-up, organization, execution, rest, etc.) as well as possible applications of the protocol.
Baumgartner, TA, Jackson, AS, Mahar, MT, and Rowe, DA. (2003). Measuring physical abilities (Chapter 7). Measurement for evaluation in physical education and exercise science. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Dubuque, IA, 162-217.
Bosco, C. (1992). [Force evaluation with the Bosco Test] La valoración de la fuerza con el test de Bosco. Paidotribo, Barcelona, Spain.
Cramer, JT, and Coburn, JW. (2004) Fitness testing protocols and norms (Chapter 11). In: Earle, R.W. and Baechle, T.R., editors. NSCA's essentials of personal training. Human Kinetics. Champaign, IL, 217-237.
Davis, KL, Kang, M, Boswell, BB, DuBose, KD, Altman, SR, and Binkley, HM. (2008). Validity and reliability of the medicine ball throw for kindergarten children. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(6), 1958-1963. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181821b20
Debanne, T, and Laffaye, G. (2011). Predicting the throwing velocity of the ball in handball with anthropometric variables and isotonic tests. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(7), 705-713. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.552112
Ebben, WP, Blackard, DO, and Jensen, RL. (1999). Quantification of medicine ball vertical impact forces: Estimating effective training loads. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 13(3), 271-274. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-199908000-00015
Fleck, SJ, and Kramer, WJ. (2000). Designing resistance training programs. Human Kinetics. Champaign, IL, 3-12.
Gaitanos, GC, Williams, C, Boobis, LH, and Brooks, S. (1993). Human muscle metabolism during intermittent maximal exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 75(2): 712-719. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19184.108.40.2062
Häkkinen, K. (1993) Changes in physical fitness profile in female volleyball players during the competitive season. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 33(3), 223-232.
Ignjatovic, A, Markovic, Z, and Radovanovic, D. (2011). Effects of 12-week medicine ball training on muscle strength and power in young female handball players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Epub ahead of print - 24 October. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823c477e
Komi, PV, and Bosco, C. (1978). Utilization of stored elastic energy in leg extensor muscles by men and women. Medicine and Science in Sports, 10(4), 261-265.
Kramer, WJ, Fleck, SJ, and Deschenes, M. (1988). A review: Factors in exercise prescription of resistance training. NSCA Journal, 10(5), 36-41.
Lacy, AC, and Hastad, DA. (2006). Measuring health-related physical fitness and physical activity (Chapter 6). Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education and Exercise Science. Pearson Benjamin Cummings. San Francisco, CA, 131-199.
Logan, P, Fornasiero, D, Abernathy, P, and Lynch, K. (2000). Protocols for the assessment of isoinertial strength (Chapter 13). In: Gore, CJ, editor. Physiological tests for elite athletes. Human Kinetics. Champaign, IL, 200-210.
Shinkle, J, Nesser, TW, Demchak, TJ, and McMannus, DM. (2012). Effect of core strength on the measure of power in the extremities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 26(2): 373-380. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31822600e5
Stockbrugger, BA, and Haennel, RG. (2001). Validity and reliability of a medicine ball explosive power test. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 15(4), 431-438.
Valadés, D. (2005). [Effect of an upper-body training base on eccentric-concentric contraction on ball velocity of volleyball spike]. Dissertation. University of Granada. Available from: http://0-hera.ugr.es.adrastea.ugr.es/tesisugr/15401911.pdf
Viitasalo, J. (1988). Evaluation of explosive strength for young and adult athletes. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sports, 59(1), 27-28. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1988.10605467