Comparison of ground reaction force during different angle of squatting
Keywords:Ground reaction force, Knee, Squatting
Squatting is a form of closed kinetic chain movement which commonly being employed in exercise training. However, little is known regarding the amount of force being imposed on the knee at different angles of squat. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) at different angles of squatting among the military personnel. Thirty-seven subjects (age=27.1±2.77 years old) participated in this cross-sectional comparative study. The peak of VGRF was identified during squatting at 40º, 70º, and 110 º of knee flexion, which was measured using a force platform. The data were analysed using the one way repeated measure ANOVA and Pairwise Comparisons via Bonferroni adjustment. The VGRF were shown significantly different between the three angles of squatting (p<0.05). Since the Mauchly Test of Sphericity was significant (p>0 .05), the result was corrected using Greenhouse-Geiser Epsilon and continued to show a significant different [F (1.36, 49.08)=43.56] (p<0.05). The effect size was large (ηρ²=0.55). This study suggests that the angle of knee flexion during squatting exercise may influence VGRF. Deep squatting was found to generate the highest VGRF compared to semi and half squatting. Thus, it is suggested that squatting may be best performed at smaller angle in order to avoid excessive force that may be detrimental to the joint surface.
FundingUniversiti Teknologi MARA and Terendak Hospital
BAKER K, MCALINDON T. Exercise for knee osteoarthritis. Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 2000; 12:456–63. https://doi.org/10.1097/00002281-200009000-00020
BENTLEY JR, AMONETTE WE, DE WITT JK, HAGAN RD. Effects of different lifting cadences on ground reaction forces during the squat exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2010; 24:1414-20. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cb27e7
BOTTONI CR. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions in Active-Duty Military Patients. Operative Techniques in Sport Medicine. 2005; 13:169-75. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.otsm.2005.10.008
Bullock SH, JONES BH, GILCHRIST J, MARSHALL SW. Prevention of physical training–related injuries recommendations for the military and other active Populations based on expedited systematic reviews. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2010; 38:S156–S181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2009.10.023
CHELLY MS, FATHLOUN M, CHERIF N, AMAR MB, TABKA Z, VAN PRAAGH E. 2009. Effects of a back squat training program on leg power, jump, and sprint performances in junior soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009; 23: 2241-9. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b86c40
DELEE JC, DREZ JRD, MILLER MD. Delee & Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Elsevier Inc. 2010.
DIONISIO DC, ALMEIDA GL, DUARTE M, HIRATA R. Kinematic, kinetic and EMG patterns during downward squatting. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 2008; 18:134–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2006.07.010
EASTLACK RK, HARGENS AR, GROPPO ER, STEINBACH GC, WHITE KK, PEDOWITZ RA. Lower body positive-pressure exercise after knee surgery. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 2005; 431:213-19. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.blo.0000150459.92012.f7
ECKSTEIN F, HUDELMAIER M, PUTZ R. The effects of exercise on human articular cartilage. Journal of Anatomy. 2006; 208:491-512. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7580.2006.00546.x
ECKSTEIN F, LEMBERGER B, GRATZKE C, HUDELMAIER M, GLASER C, ENGLMEIER K, REISER M. In vivo cartilage deformation after different types of activity and its dependence on physical training status. Annals of Rheumatic Diseases. 2005; 64: 291-295. https://doi.org/10.1136/ard.2004.022400
ECKSTEIN F, TIESCHKY M, FABER SC, FABER S, ENGLMEIER K, REISER M. Functional analysis of articular cartilage deformation, recovery, and fluid flow following dynamic exercise in vivo. Anatomy and Embryology. 1999; 200: 419-24. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004290050291
ECKSTEIN F, TIESCHKY M, FABER SC, KOLEM MHH, ENGLMEIER K, REISER M. Effect of physical exercise on cartilage volume and thickness in vivo:MR Imaging study. Radiology. 1998; 207:243-248. https://doi.org/10.1148/radiology.207.1.9530322
EKELAND A. Injuries in military parachuting: a prospective study of 4499 jumps. Injury. 1997; 28:219-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0020-1383(96)00185-4
ESCAMILLA RF. Knee biomechanics of the dynamic squat exercise. Medicine Science and Sports Exercise. 2001; 33:127-41. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200101000-00020
ESCAMILLA RF, FLEISING GS, BARRENTINE SW, ANDREWS JR. A three-dimensional biomechanical analysis of the squat during varying stance widths. Medicine Science and Sports Exercise. 2001; 33:984-98. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200106000-00019
ESCAMILLA RF, FRANCISCO AC, KAYES AV, SPEER KP, MOORMAN CL, KRZYZEWSKI MW. An electromyography analysis of sumo and conventional style deadlifts. Medicine Science and Sports Exercise. 2000; 34:682-88.
FRITZ M, PEIKENKAMP K. Simulation of the influence of sports surfaces on vertical ground reaction forces during landing. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing. 2003; 41:11-17. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02343533
GROSSI DB, FELICIO LR, SIMÕES R, COQUEIRO KR, PEDRO VM. Electromyographic activity evaluation of the patella muscles during squat isometric exercise in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome. Brazilian Journal of Sports Medicine. 2005; 12:155-58.
HERBERHOLD C, FABER S, STAMMBERGER T, STEINLECHNER M, PUTZ R, ENGLMEIER KH, ET AL. In situ measurement of articular cartilage deformation in intact femoropatellar joints under static loading. Journal of Biomechanics. 1999; 32:1287-95. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0021-9290(99)00130-X
HOWARD RL. Kinematic and kinetic effects of knee and ankle sagittal plane joint restrictions during squatting. Unpublished thesis (PhD), University of North Carolina, Greensboro, United States. 2005.
ISEAR JA, ERICKSON JC, WORRELL TW. EMG analysis of lower extremity muscle recruitment patterns during an unloaded. Medicine Science and Sports Exercise. 1997; 29:532-39. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199704000-00016
JAN MH, LIN CH, LIN YF, LIN JJ, LIN DH. Effects of weight-bearing versus nonweight-bearing exercise on function, walking speed, and position sense in participants with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Archive of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2009; 90:897-904. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2008.11.018
JASON J. The effect of cadence on ground reaction force during the push up exercise. Unpublished thesis (Master), California State University, Long Beach, United States, 2011.
JONES BH, PERROTTA DM, CANHAM-CHERVAK ML, NEE MA, BRUNDAGE JF. Injuries in the military a review and commentary focused on prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2000; 18:71-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(99)00169-5
KAUFMAN KR, BRODINE S, SHAFFER R. Military training-related injuries surveillance, research, and prevention. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2000; 18:54-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797(00)00114-8
Kisner C, Allen L. Therapeutic exercise: foundations and techniques. 5th ed. Philadelphia: FA Davis, 2007.
LAMONT HS, CRAMER JT, BEMBEN DA, SHEHAB RL, ANDERSON MA, BEMBEN MG. Effects of a 6-week periodized squat training program with or without whole-body vibration on jump height and power output following acute vibration exposure. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2009; 23:2317-25. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b3e1dc
Luttgens K, WELLS KF. Kinesiology: Scientific basic of human movement. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing, 1982.
LUTZ GE, PALMITIER RA, AN KN, CHAO YS. Comparison of tibiofemoral joint forces during open kinetic chain and closed kinetic chain exercises. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. 1993; 75:732-39. https://doi.org/10.2106/00004623-199305000-00014
MAIOR AS, SIMAO R, SALLES BF, MIRANDA H, COSTA PB. Neuromuscular activity during the squat exercise on an unstable platform. Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity. 2009; 3:121-29.
MARKOLF KL, BARGAR WL, SHOEMAKER SC, AMSTUTZ HC. The role of joint load in knee stability. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery. 1981; 63:570-88. https://doi.org/10.2106/00004623-198163040-00007
RUBEN RM, MOLINARI MA, BIBBEE CA, CHILDRESS MA, HARMAN MS, REED KP, ET AL. The acute effects of an ascending squat protocol on performance during horizontal plyometric jumps. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research.2010; 24:358–69. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cc26e0
SALEM GJ, POWERS CM. Patellofemoral joint kinetics during squatting in collegiate women athletes. Clinical Biomechanics. 2001; 16:424-30. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0268-0033(01)00017-1
SHOEMAKER SC, MARKOLF KL. Effects of joint load on the stiffness and laxity of ligament-deficient knees: An in vitro study of the anterior cruciate & medial collateral ligaments. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery.1985; 67:136-46. https://doi.org/10.2106/00004623-198567010-00017
SOUSA CO, FERREIRA JA, MEDEIROS AC, CARVALHO AH, PEREIRA RC, GUEDES DT, ALENCAR JF. Electromyograhic activity in squatting at 40°, 60° and 90° knee flexion positions. Brazilian Journal of Sports Medicine. 2007; 13:280-86.
STENSDOTTER A, HODGES P, OHBERG F, HAGER-ROSS C. Quadriceps EMG in open and closed kinetic chain tasks in women with patellofemoral pain. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2007; 39:194-202. https://doi.org/10.3200/JMBR.39.3.194-202
YACK HJ, COLLINS C., WHIELDON TJ. Comparison of closed and open kinetic chain exercise in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 1993; 21:49-54. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659302100109
YANG K., Kinetic, kinematic and electromyographical analysis of inline and decline push-ups with different cadences. Unpublished thesis (PhD), Michigan State University, United States, 2011.
ZHANG Y, HUNTER DJ, NEVITT MC, XU L, NIU J, LUI L. The Beijing osteoarthritis study: association of squatting with increased prevalence of radiographic tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2004; 50:1187-92. https://doi.org/10.1002/art.20127
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2013 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.