Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Biomechanical analysis of the final strides of the approach and the take-off by visually impaired class F12 and F13 long jumpers

Vassilios Panoutsakopoulos, Apostolos Theodorou, Mariana Kotzamanidou, Emmanouil Skordilis, Iraklis Kollias



Despite of the level of visual aquity, European Records in long jumping are greater in class F12 (visual acuity 2/60) than class F13 (visual acuity 6/60) both in males and females. The aim of the present study was to compare the biomechanical parameters of the final strides of the approach and the take-off in class F12 and F13 long jumpers. 19 class F12 (males: 13, females: 6) and 12 class F13 (males: 4, females: 8) long jumpers participating in the 2009 International Blind Sports Association European Championships were recorded using a stationary digital video camera (sampling frequency: 300 fps). Key biomechanical parameters were extracted with a typical 2D-DLT kinematical analysis. Differences between groups were investigated using Independent samples t-test. Results indicated that the official distance was 6.07 m ± 0.55 and 5.52 m ± 0.91 for F12 and F13 respectively (p<.05). Significant differences were also observed concerning the vertical take-off velocity (F12: 2.8 m/sec, F13: 2.4 m/sec), the support leg's knee flexion (F12: 18.2 deg, F13: 25.2 deg) and the knee joint flexion velocity (F12: 7.4 rad/sec, F13: 10.2 rad/sec) at the take-off board and the knee maximum flexion angle at the last stride (F12: 116.8 deg, F13: 125.4 deg). In conclusion, F12 performed better than F13 because of the more advantageus utilization of the factors defining the vertical component in the long- jump take-off. Additionally, the different last stride maximum knee flexion angle might imply differences concerning the mechanics of the placement of the take-off leg. It is possible that factors such as the size and surface properties of the 1.22 m x 1.00 m chalked take-off area used in F12 competition may contribute to the differences observed in the study.




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