Teaching of new sport skill to weightlifters: Problem in performance and motor learning
This study would report about one of the problems (learning of a new sport skill) that occurs probably following weightlifting and decrease range of motion (ROM). Weightlifters (WLs) group (n=20) and Non-Weightlifters (NWs) group (n=20) were trained overhand serve volleyball based on a similar schedule program. The Results of performance accuracy showed, WLs didn’t learn the skill, but NWs learned did. When ROM had been controlled, performance of WLs and NWs were not different. We observed, WLs had noticeable differences in pattern of joints displacement in comparison with NWs and reference pattern of serve skill. Thus, it seems that WLs encounter with some problems regarding performance and learning of new motor skills due to ROM’s limitation.
American College of Sports Medicine. (2005). ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (7th ed.), Health-Related Physical Testing and Interpretation (pp.55-89). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Barlow, J.C., Brain, W.B., Birt, P.J., & Hughes, C.J. (2002). Shoulder Strength and Range of Motion Characteristics in Bodybuilders. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 16(3), 367-372.
Beckung, E., Hagberg, G. (2002), Neuroimpairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions in children with cerebral palsy, Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 44, 309-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8749.2002.tb00816.x
Bland, M.D., Beebe, J.A., Hardwick, D.D., & Lang, C.E. (2008). Restricted Active Range of Motion at the Elbow, Forearm, Wrist, or Fingers Decreases Hand Function. Journal of Hand Therapy, 21, 268–75. https://doi.org/10.1197/j.jht.2008.01.003
Calhoon, G., & Fry, C. (1999). Injury Rates and Profiles of Elite Competitive Weightlifters. Journal of Athletic Training, 34(3), 232-238.
Canavan, P.K., Garrett, G.E., & Armestrong, L.E. (1996). Kinematic and Kinetic relationship between an Olympic-Style lift and the vertical Jump. J Strength Cond Res, 10, 127-130.
Cantell, M.H., Crawford, G., & Doyle-Parker, P.K. (2008). Physical fitness and health indices in children, adolescents and adults with high or low motor competence. Human Movement Science, 27,344–362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2008.02.007
Carroll, T.J., Riek, S., & Carson, R.G. (2001). Neural adaptations to resistance training: implications for movement control. Sports Med, 31, 829–840. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200131120-00001
Chan, H., Lau, P., Fong, K., Poon, D., & Lam, C. (2005). Neuroimpairment, activity limitation, and participation restriction among children with cerebral palsy in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Medicine Journal, 11, 342-50.
Chandler, T.J., Kibler, W.B., Uhl, T.L., Wooten, B., Kiser, A., & Stone, E. (1990). Flexibility comparisons of junior elite tennis player to other athletes. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 18(2), 134-136. https://doi.org/10.1177/036354659001800204
Chiu, L.Z.F., Schiling, B.K. (2005). A primer on weightlifting: From Sport to sport Training. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 27(1), 42-48. https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200502000-00008
Cooper, J.E., Shwedyk, E., Quanbury, A.O., Miller, J., & Hildebrand, D. (1993). Elbow joint restriction: effect of functional upper limb motion during performance of three feeding activities. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74, 805–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9993(93)90005-U
Corrao, M., Kolber, M.J., Wilson, S.H. (2009). Addressing Posterior Shoulder Tightness in the Athletic Population. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 31(6), 61-65. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0b013e3181c2a828
Daneshmandi, H., Rahmaninia, F., Shahrokhi, H., Rahmani, P., & Esmaeili, S. (2010). Shoulder joint flexibility in top athletes. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 3, 811-815. https://doi.org/10.4236/jbise.2010.38108
Dorfberger, S., Adi-Japha, E., & Karni, A. (2009). Sex differences in motor performance and motor learning in children and adolescents: An increasing male advantage in motor learning and consolidation phase gains. Behavioural Brain Research, 198(1), 165-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2008.10.033
Fleisig, G.S., Kingsley, D.S., Loftice, J.W., Dinnen, K., Ranganathan, R., Dun, S., Escamilla, R.F., & Andrews, J.R. (2006). Kinetic comparison among the fastball, curveball, change-up, and slider in collegiate baseball pitchers. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 34(3), 423-430. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546505280431
French, K.E., Rink, J.E., Rikard, L., Mays, A., Lynn, S., & Werner, P.H. (1991). The Effects of Practice Progressions on Learning Two Volleyball Skills. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 10(3), 261-274. https://doi.org/10.1123/jtpe.10.3.261
Fry, A.C., Schiling, B.K., Staron, R.S., Hagerman, F.C., Hikida, R.S., & Thrush, J.T. (2003). Muscle fiber characteristics and performance correlates of male Olympic-style weightlifters. J of Strength Cond Res, 17,746-754.
Haff, G.G., & Potteiger, J.A. (2001). A brief review: explosive exercise and sports performance. Strength Cond J, 23, 13-20. https://doi.org/10.1519/00126548-200106000-00003
Haga, M. (2009). Physical Fitness in Children with High Motor Competence Is Different From That in Children With Low Motor Competence, Physical Therapy, 89(10), 1089-97. https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20090052
Hands, B. (2008). Changes in motor skill and fitness measures among children with high and low motor competence: A five year longitudinal study. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 11(2), 155-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.02.012
Hands, B., Larkin, D. (2006). Physical fitness differences in children with and without motor learning difficults. European Journal of Specific Needs Education, 21(4), 447-56. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856250600956410
Hedrick, A., & Wada, H. (2008). Weightlifting Movements: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks? Strength and Conditioning Journal, 30(6), 26-34. https://doi.org/10.1519/SSC.0b013e31818ebc8b
Kanehisa, H., Funato, K., Abe, T., & Fukunaga, T. (2005). Profiles of muscularity in junior Olympic weight lifters. J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 45(1), 77-83.
Kaplan, K.M., Elattrache, N.S., Jobe, F.W., Morrey, B.F., Kaufman, K.R., & Hurd, W.J. (2011). Comparison of Shoulder Range of Motion, Strength, and Playing Time in Uninjured High School Baseball Pitchers Who Reside in Warm- and Cold-Weather Climates. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 39, 320-328. https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546510382230
Kolber, M.J., & Corrao, M. (2011). Shoulder joint and muscle characteristics among healthy female recreational weight training participants. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 25(1), 231–241. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181fb3fab
Kolber, M.J., Beekhuizen, K.S., Cheng, M.S., & Hellman, M.A. (2009). Shoulder joint and muscle characteristics in the recreational weight training population. Journal of Strength Conditioning Research, 23(1), 148–157. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31818eafb4
Kuorinka, I., Jonsson, B., Kilbom, A., Vinterberg, H., Biering-Sorensen, F., Andersson, G., & Jorgenson, K. (1987). Standardized Nordic Questionnaires for the analysis of musculoskeletal symptoms. Applied Ergonomics, 18(3), 233-237. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-6870(87)90010-X
Newton, R.U., Kraemer, W.J. (1994). Developing explosive muscular power: Implications for a mix methods training strategy. Strength cond J, 16, 20-31. https://doi.org/10.1519/1073-6840(1994)016<0020:DEMPIF>2.3.CO;2
Perrot, A., & Bertsch, J. (2007). Role of Age in Relation Between Two Kinds of Abilities and Performance in Acqusition of New Motor Skill. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 104(1), 91-101. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.104.1.91-101
Rosenbaum, P., Paneth, N., Leviton, A., Goldstein, M., & Bax, M. (2007). A report: the definition and classification of cerebral palsy April 2006. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49(109):8-14.
Schmidt, R.A. (1991). Motor Learning and Performance to Practice to Practice. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics Publishers.
Starkey, D.B., Pollock, M.L., Ishida, Y., Welsch, M.A., Brechue, W.F., Graves, J.E., & Feigenbaum, M.S. (1996). Effect of resistance training volume on strength and muscle thickness. Medicine & Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 1311–1320. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199610000-00016
Tovin, B.J., & Greenfield, B.H. (2001). Evaluation and treatment of the shoulder: an integration of the guide to physical therapist practice. Philadelphia: FA Davis Company.
Weeks, D.L., & Sherwood, D.E. (1994). A comparison of knowledge of results scheduling methods for promoting motor skill acquisition and retention. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 65(2), 136-142. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.1994.10607608
Wilk, K.E., Arrigo, C.A., & Andrews, J.R. (1997). Current concepts: the stabilizing structures of the glenohumeral joint. Journal of Orthopedic Sports Physical Therapy, 25(6), 364-79. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.19184.108.40.2064
Williams, S.M. (1991) .Handedness Inventories: Edinburgh Versus Annett. Neuropsychology, 5(1), 43-48. https://doi.org/10.1037/0894-4220.127.116.11