Winning or not winning: The influence on coach-athlete relationships and goal achievement
Keywords:Leadership, Coaching, satisfaction, Compatibility, Sports performance
This study analyzes the relation between sports success and athletes’ perception of coaches’ leadership, athletes’ satisfaction with coaches’ leadership, coach-athlete compatibility, and goal achievement. Sixty-six athletes who qualified for the final Division I play-offs of a professional volleyball championship were grouped into winning (n = 21) and non-winning teams (n = 45). Leadership styles, satisfaction with leadership, coach-athlete compatibility, and goal achievement were evaluated. Analysis of variance with repeated-measures revealed that the winning teams evaluated their coaches’ vision, inspiration, technical coaching, positive feedback, and active management more positively than non-winning teams and that their satisfaction with coaches’ strategies increased over time. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that the winning teams’ perceived achievement of personal and team goals was greater than that of the non-winning teams. Sports success was associated with athletes’ positive evaluation of coaches’ leadership, satisfaction with coaches’ strategy, and higher perceived goal attainment.
FundingUniversidade do Minho. Escola de Psicologia
BASS BM. Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press; 1985.
BASS BM, RIGGIO RE. Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers; 2006.
BOARDLEY ID, KAVUSSANU M, RING C. Athletes' perceptions of coaching effectiveness and athlete-related outcomes in rugby union: An investigation based on the coaching efficacy model. The Sport Psychologist. 2008; 22: 269-287. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.22.3.269
CHELLADURAI P. Leadership in sports. In: G. Tenenbaum and R.C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2007. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118270011.ch5
Collins J. Good to great. New York: HarperCollins; 2001.
CORTINA JM. What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1993; 78: 98-104. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.1.98
COTE J, SALMELA JH, TRUDEL P, BARIA A, RUSSELL S. The coaching model: A grounded assessment of expert gymnastic coaches knowledge. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 1995; 17: 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.17.1.1
COURNEYA KS, CHELLADURAI P. A model of performance measures in baseball. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 1991; 13: 16-25. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.13.1.16
CROCKER PRE, GRAHAM TR. Coping by competitive athletes with performance stress: Gender differences and relationships with affect. The Sport Psychologist. 1995; 9: 325-338. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.9.3.325
DAY DV, LORD RG. Executive leadership and organizational performance: Suggestions for a new theory and methodology. Journal of Management. 1988; 14: 453-464. https://doi.org/10.1177/014920638801400308
DEGROOT T, KICKER DS, CROSS C. A meta-analysis to review organisational outcomes related to charismatic leadership. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences. 2000; 17(4): 356–371. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1936-4490.2000.tb00234.x
DUMDUM UR, LOWE KB, AVOLIO BJ. A meta-analysis of transformational and transactional leadership correlates of effectiveness and satisfaction: An update and extension. In: B. J. Avolio and F. J. Yammarino (Eds.), Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. Oxford, U.K: JAI/Elsevier; 2002.
FELTZ DL, CHASE MA, MORITZ SE, SULLIVAN PJ. A conceptual model of coaching efficacy: Preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of Educational Psychology. 1999; 91: 765-776. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06188.8.131.525
GOMES AR, PAIVA P. Liderança, compatibilidade treinador-atleta e satisfação no andebol: Percepção de atletas novatos e experientes [Leadership, coach-athlete compatibility and satisfaction in handball: Perceptions of novice and experienced athletes]. PsicoUSF. 2010; 15(2): 235-248.
GOMES AR, RESENDE R. Assessing leadership styles of coaches and testing the augmentation effect in sport. Sumitted for publication. 2012.
HARTER JK, SCHMIDT FL, HAYES TL. Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2002; 87: 268-279. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.2.268
HETLAND H, SANDAL G. Transformational leadership in Norway: Outcomes and personality correlates. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology. 2003; 12(2): 147-170. https://doi.org/10.1080/13594320344000057
Horn TS. Coaching effectiveness in the sport domain. In: T.S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2008.
Jowett S. Interdependence analysis and the 3+1 Cs in the coach-athlete relationship. In: S. Jowett and D. Lavallee (Eds.), Social psychology in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2007.
JOYCE WF, NOHRIA N, ROBERSON B. What really works. New York: Harper Business; 2003.
JUDGE TA, PICCOLO RF, ILIES R. The forgotten ones? The validity of consideration and initiating structure in leadership research. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2004; 89: 36-51. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.1.36
KAISER RB, HOGAN R, CRAIG SB. Leadership and the fate of organizations. American Psychologist. 2008; 63: 96-110. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.63.2.96
Kenow LJ, WILLIAMS JM. Coach-athlete compatibility and athlete's perception and evaluative reactions to coaching behaviors. Journal of Sport Behavior. 1999; 22: 251-259.
Kovjanic, S., Schuh, S. C., Jonas, K., Quaquebeke, N. V. and van Dick, R. (2012), How do transformational leaders foster positive employee outcomes? A self-determination-based analysis of employees' needs as mediating links. J. Organiz. Behav., 33: 1031–1052. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.1771
Lyle J. Sports coaching concepts: A framework for coachesʼ behaviour. London: Routledge; 2002.
MALLETT C, CÔTÉ J. Beyond winning and losing: Guidelines for evaluating high performance coaches. The Sport Psychologist. 2006; 20: 213-221. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.20.2.213
MCGAHAN AM, PORTER ME. How much does industry matter, really? Strategic Management Journal. 1997; 18: 15-30. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199707)18:1+<15::AID-SMJ916>3.3.CO;2-T
PENSGAARD AM, DUDA JL. Sydney 2000: The interplay between emotions, coping, and the performance of Olympic-level athletes. The Sport Psychologist. 2003; 17: 253-267. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.17.3.253
Rai S, SINHA AK. Transformational leadership, organizational commitment, and facilitating climate. Psychological Studies. 2000; 45(1-2): 33-42.
RIEMER HA, CHELLADURAI P. Development of the athlete satisfaction questionnaire (ASQ). Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology. 1998; 20: 127-156. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.20.2.127
Thomas A. Does leadership make a difference to organizational performance? Administrative Science Quarterly. 1998; 33: 388-400. https://doi.org/10.2307/2392715
WILLIAMS JM, JEROME GJ, KENOW LJ, ROGERS T, SARTAIN TA, DARLAND G. (2003). Factor structure of the coaching behavior questionnaire and its relationships to athlete variables. The Sport Psychologist. 2003; 17: 16-34. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.17.1.16
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2013 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.