Effect of plyometric training on sand versus grass on muscle soreness and selected sport-specific performance variables in hockey players
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 4-week plyometric training on two different surfaces, sand and grass on muscle soreness and selected sport-specific performance variables in national level hockey players. Methods. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups- grass training group (N=20) and sand training group (N=20). After the baseline measurements of strength, endurance, balance, and agility, plyometric training was given for 4-weeks,three sessions per week.Muscle soreness was assessed at the end of each training session on a 7-point likert scale.Post-readings of strength, endurance, balance and agility were taken after the 4-week training programme. Findings. Data when compared after plyometric training revealed no significant changes between two groups (p>0.05), however players in the sand group experienced less muscle soreness (p<0.05) than grass group. There was significant improvement (p<0.05) seen in the tested variables in both groups after the training but no significant interaction was found between the two surfaces after the training. Conclusion. These findings suggest that short-term plyometric training on sand/non-rigid surface induces similar improvements in strength, endurance, balance and agility as on firm surface but induces significantly less muscle soreness. Hence, plyometric training on sand is viable option for coaches to enhance performance in athletes,while reducing risk of muscle soreness and damage.
Ghosh AK, Goswami A, Ahuja A,et al. Physical and Physiological profile of Indian National Women Hockey Players, NIS Scientific J, 1991;14:4,1-9.
Reilly T, Borrie A. Physiology applied to field hockey. Sports Medicine. 1992;14(1),10-26. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199214010-00002
Reilly T, Seaton A.Physiological strain unique to field hockey. Journal of Sports Medicine andPhysical Fitness 1990;30(2):142-146.
Boyle PM, Mahoney CA, Wallace WF,et al. The competitive demands of elite male field hockey. Journal of Sports Medicine Physical Fitness. 1994;34(3):235-41.
Spencer M, Lawrence S, Rechichi C, Bishop D, Dawson B, Goodman C, et al. Time-motion analysis of elite field hockey, with special reference to repeated-sprint activity. Journal of Sports Science. 2004; 22(9):843-50. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410410001716715
Chu DA. Jumping into Plyometrics (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL:Human Kinetics. 1998.
Bobbert MF. Drop jumping as a training method for jumping ability. Sports Med 1990;9:7-22. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199009010-00002
Miyama M,Nosaka K. Influence of surface on muscle damage and soreness induced by consecutive drop jumps. J Strength Cond Res 2004;18:206-11.
Giatsis G,Kollias I,Panoutsakopoulos V, et al. Biomechanical differences in elite beach-volleyball players in vertical squat jump on rigid and sand surface. Sports Biomech 2004;3:145-58. https://doi.org/10.1080/14763140408522835
Martel GF, Harmer ML, Logan JM, Parker CB,et al. Aquatic plyometric training increases vertical jump in female volleyball players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(10):1814-19. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.mss.0000184289.87574.60
Miller MG, Berry DC, Bullard S, Gilders R,et al. Comparisons of land based and aquatic based plyometric programs during an 8-week training period.Journal of Sports Rehabilitation 2002 ;11:269-283. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.11.4.268
Robinson LE, Devor ST, Merrick MA, Buckworth J,et al. The effects of land vs. aquatic plyometrics on power, torque, velocity, and muscle soreness in women. J Strength CondRes. 2004;18(1):84-91.
Stemm JD, Jacobson BH. Comparison of land- and aquatic-based plyometric training on vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res.2007;21(2): 568-571.
Impellizzeri FM, Rampinini E, Castanga C, MartinoF, Fiorini S, Wisloff U,et al. Effect of Plyometric training on sand versus grass on muscle soreness and jumping and sprinting ability in soccer players. Br J Sports Med. 2008;42:42-46. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2007.038497
Getchell B. Physical Fitness: A Way of Life.New York:John Wiley and Sons,1979.
Luebbers PE, Potteiger JA, Hulver MW,et al. Effects of plyometric training and recovery on vertical jump performance and anaerobic power. J Strength Cond Res 2003;17:704-9.
Vickers AJ. Time course of muscle soreness following different types of exercise. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2001;2:5. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2474-2-5
Markovic G, Mikulic P. Neuro-Musculoskeletal and Performance Adaptations to Lower-Extremity Plyometric Training.Sports Med 2005;40(10):859-895. https://doi.org/10.2165/11318370-000000000-00000
Esfangreh AS. Effect of six week plyometric exercise on dynamic postural control of male athletic students.Annals of Biological Research. 2011;2(6): 88-90.
Asadi A, Arazi H. Effects of high-intensity plyometric training on dynamic balance, agility, vertical jump and sprint performance in young male basketball players. Journal of Sport and Health Research. 2012;4:35-44.
Michael GM, Jeremy JH,Mark DR,Christopher CC, Timothy JM,et al. The effects of a 6-week plyometric training program on agility. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine. 2006;5:459-465
Shiran MY, Kordi MR, Ziaee V, Ravasi AA, Mansournia MA. The effect of aquatic and land plyometric training on physical performance and muscular enzymes in male wrestlers. Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2008;3:457-461.
Myer GD, Ford KR, Palumbo JP, Hewett TE. Neuromuscular training improves performance and lower extremity biomechanics in female athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: 2005; 19:51-60.
Twist PW, Benicky D. Conditioning lateral movements for multi-sport athletes: Practical strength and quickness drills. Strength and Conditioning. 1996;18:10-19. https://doi.org/10.1519/1073-6840(1996)018<0010:CLMFMS>2.3.CO;2
Witzke KA, CM. Snow. Effects of plyometric jump training on bone mass in adolescent girls. Med Sci Sports Exerc.2000; 32(6):1051-57. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-200006000-00003