Preliminary validation of the Italian version of the original sport motivation scale
This study aims at develop and validate a preliminary Italian version of the original Sport Motivation Scale. The original scale was translated into Italian following transcultural procedures. The scale was administered to 228 athletes (55% females, n = 125, M age= 25, SD= 13) recruited in an Italian Sports Medicine Center. Confirmatory factor, internal consistency and correlation analysis among subscales were performed. Gender differences and associations between SMS subscales and psychological variables (coach leadership style, sport enjoyment, self-confidence in sport, attitude toward doping behaviors) were investigated. The analysis showed encouraging results about the validity and reliability of the Italian version of the SMS scale.
Alexandris, K., Tsorbatzoudis, C., & Grouios, G. (2002). Perceived constraints on recreational sport participation: Investigating their relationship with intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation. J Leisure Res, 34, 233–252. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2002.11949970
Brière, N.M., Vallerand, R.J., Blais, M.R., & Pelletier, L.G. (1995). Devéloppement et validation d'une mesure de motivation intrinsèque, extrinsèque et d'amotivation en context sportif: l'Echelle de Motivation dans les Sports (EMS). Int J Sport Psychol, 26, 465-489.
Brislin, R.W. (1986). The wording and translation of research instruments. In W. Lonner & J. Berry (Eds.), Fields methods in cross-cultural research (pp.137-164). Beverly Hills, CA:Sage.
Carraro, A., Young, M.C., & Robazza, C. (2008). A contribution to the validation of the physical activity enjoyment scale in an Italian sample. J Soc Behav Pers, 36(7), 911-918. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2008.36.7.911
Chatzisarantis, N.L.D., Hagger, M.S., Biddle, S.J.H., Smith, B., & Wang, J. (2003). A meta-analysis of perceived locus of causality in exercise, sport, and physical education contexts. J Sport Exercise Psy, 25, 284–306. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.25.3.284
Chelledurai, P., & Saleh, S.D. (1978). Preferred leadership in sports. Can J App Sport Sci, 3, 85-92.
Chelledurai, P., & Saleh, S.D. (1980). Dimensions of leader behavior in sports. Development of a leadership scale. J Sport Psychol, 2, 34-45. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.2.1.34
Cox, R.H., & Liu, Z. (1991). Psychological skills: A cross-cultural investigation. Int J Sport Psychol, 24(3), 326-340.
Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (Eds.). (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, USA: Plenum. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7
Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1991). A motivational approach to self: Integration in personality. In R. Deinstbier (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation: Vol. 38. Perspectives on motivation (pp. 237-288). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Doganis, G. (2000). Development of a Greek version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Percept Motor Skill, 90, 505-512. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.2000.90.2.505
Duda, J.L. (2005). Motivation in sport: the relevance of competence and achievement goal. Handbook of competence and motivation, 318-336.
Duda, J.L. (2007). Motivation in a sport setting: A goal perspective approach. Essential read sport exercise psy, 78-102.
Filho M.B., Andrade, D., Miranda, R., Nunez, J.L, Martin-Albo, J., & Ribas, P.R. (2010). Preliminary validation of a brazilian version of the sport motivation scale. Univ Psychol, 10(2), 557-566.
Gillet, N., Vallerand, R.J., Amoura, S., Baldes, B. (2010). Influence of coaches' autonomy support on athletes' motivation and sport performance: A test of the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Psychol Sport Exerc, 11(2), 155-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.10.004
Goergiadis, M.M., Biddle, S.J.H., & Chatzisarantis, N.L.D. (2001). The mediating role of self-determination in the relationship between goal orientations and physical worth in Greek exercisers. Eur J Sport Sci, 1, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390100071502
Hamer, M., Karageorghis, C.I., & Vlachopoulos, S.P. (2002). Motives for exercise participation as predictors of exercise dependence among endurance athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fit, 42, 233–238.
Harter, S. (1978). Effectance motivation reconsidered: Toward a developmental model. Hum Dev, 1, 34-64. https://doi.org/10.1159/000271574
Hollembeak, J., Amorose, A.J. (2005). Perceived Coaching Behaviors and College Athletes' Instrinsic Motivation: A Test of Self-Determination Theory. J Appl Sport Psychol, 17(1), 20-36. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200590907540
Jackson, S.A., Kimiecik, J.C., Ford, S.K., & Marsh, L.W. (1998). Psychological correlates of flow in sport. J Sport Exercise Psy, 20, 358–378. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.20.4.358
Keegan, R.J., Harwood, C.G., Spray, C.M., & Lavallee, D.E. (2010). The Motivational Atmosphere in Youth Sport: Coach, Parent, and Peer Influences on Motivation in Specializing Sport Participants. J Appl Sport Psychol, 22(1), 87-105. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200903421267
Kendzierski, D., & DeCarlo, K.J. (1991). Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale: Two Validation Studies. J Sport Exercise Psy, 13(1), 50-64. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.13.1.50
Mallett, C.J., Kawabata, M., Newcombe, P., Otero-Forero, A., & Jackson, S. (2007). Sport Motivation Scale-6 (SMS-6): A revised six-factor sport motivation scale. Psychol Sport Exerc, 8, 600-614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.12.005
Martens, M.P., & Webber, S.N. (2002). Psychometric properties of the sport motivation scale: An evaluation with college varsity athletes from the US. J Sport Exercise Psy, 24, 254-270. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.24.3.254
Ntoumanis, N. (2001). Empirical links between achievement goal theory and self-determination theory in sport. J Sport Sci, 19, 397-409. https://doi.org/10.1080/026404101300149357
Nunez, J.L., Martin-Albo, J., Navarro, J.G., & Gonzales, V.M. (2006). Preliminary validation of a Spanish version of the Sport Motivation Scale. Perceptl Motor Skill, 102, 919-930. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.102.3.919-930
Pelletier, L.G., Fortier, M.S., Vallerand, R.J., Tuson, K.M., Briere, N.M., & Blais, M.R. (1995). Toward a new measure of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation in sports: The Sports Motivation Scale (SMS). J Sport Exercise Psy, 17, 35-53. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.17.1.35
Pelletier, L.G., Vallerand, R.J., & Sarrazin, P. (2007). The revised six-factor sport motivation scale (Mallett, Kawabata, Newcombe, Otero-forero, & Jackson, 2007): Something old, something new, and something borrowed. Psychol Sport Exerc, 8, 615-621. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.03.006
Petroczi, A. (2006). Measuring attitude toward doping: further evidence for the psychometric properties of the Performance Enhancement Attitude Scale. 14th Congress of the European Association for Sport Management. Nicosia, Cyprus. September.
Petroczi, A., & Aidman, E. (2008). Psychological drivers in doping: The life-cycle model of performance enhancement. Subst Abuse Treat, Pr, 3, 7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1747-597X-3-7
Reimer, H., Fink, J.S., & Fitzgerald, M.P. (2002). External validity of the Sport Motivation Scale. Avante, 8(2), 57–66.
Ryan, R.M., & Deci, E.L. (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions. Contemp Educ Psychol 25, 54-67. https://doi.org/10.1006/ceps.1999.1020
Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Muller, H. (2003). Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodness-of-Fit Measures. Methods Psychol Res, 8(2), 23-74.
Vallerand, R.J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 271-360). New York, USA: Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60019-2
Vallerand, R.J., & Losier, G.F. (1999). An integrative analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport. J Appl Sport Psychol, 11(1), 142-169. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413209908402956
Vallerand, R. J. (2007). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport and physical activity. A review and a look at the future. In G. C. Tenenbaum & R. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed.) (pp. 59-83). New York, USA: John Wiley. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118270011.ch3
Vallerand, R.J., Blais, M.R., Brière, N.M., & Pelletier, L.G. (1989). Construction et validation de l'Echelle de Motivation en Education (EME). Can J Behav Sci, 21, 323-349. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0079855
Vallerand, R.J., Pelletier, L.G., Blais, M.R., Brière, N.M., Senecal, C.B., & Vallieres, E.F. (1992). The academic motivation scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Educ Psychol Meas, 52, 1003–1017. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164492052004025
Vealey, R.S (1986). Conceptualization of sport confidence and competitive orientation: preliminary investigation and instrument development. Journal of Sport Psychology, 10, 471-478. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.8.3.221
Vealey, R.S., Hayashi, S.W., Garner-Holman, M., & Giacobbi, P. (1998). Sources of Sport-Confidence: Conceptualization and Instrument Development. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 20(1), 54-80. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.20.1.54
Watson, J.C., Connole, I., & Kadushin, P. (2011). Developing Young Athletes: A Sport Psychology Based Approach to Coaching Youth Sports. Journal of Sport Psychology in Action, 2(2), 113-122. https://doi.org/10.1080/21520704.2011.586452
Copyright (c) 2014 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.