Resistance exercise load reduction and exercise-induced micro-damage
Keywords:Resistance training, Exercise-Induced, Muscle-Damage, Range of motion, Muscle pain
AbstractHigh volumes of resistance exercise increase muscle hypertrophy, independent of the extent of muscle damage. We compared volume load and markers of muscle damage after resistance exercise using two load reduction strategies versus a constant intensity. Methods: Twenty-seven trained men (age = 23.4±3.5 years, body mass = 74.5±10.7 Kg, height = 174±8 cm, 10 RM = 211±40 Kg) completed one weekly bout of 4 sets of leg press exercise under three loading schemes in a randomized, counterbalanced order over a three-week period. The loading schemes were (a) constant load for all sets (CON), (b) 5% load reduction after each set (LR5), and (c) 10% load reduction after each set (LR10). Volume load, muscle soreness (SOR), and range of motion (ROM) at the knee were assessed after each bout. Results: Volume load was significantly different amongst all conditions (CON = 6799±1583 Kg; LR5 = 8753±1789 Kg; 10896±2262 Kg; F= 31,731; p<0.001). ROM and SOR were significantly different among conditions, with LR5 and LR10 producing greater preservations of ROM (p =<0.001) and less SOR (p < 0.001). These data may support the use of load reductions when training for hypertrophy.
BRENTANO MA, KRUEL LFM. A review on strength exercise-induced muscle damage: applications, adaptation mechanisms and limitations. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2011; 51:1-10.
CHEN TC, NOSAKA K, SACCO P. Intensity of eccentric exercise, shift of optimum angle, and the magnitude of repeated-bout effect. J Appl Physiol 2007;102:992-999. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00425.2006
COOK DB, O'CONNOR PJ, EUBANKS SA, SMITH JC, LEE M. Naturally occurring muscle pain during exercise: assessment and experimental evidence. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997; 29:999-1012. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199708000-00004
HACKETT DA, JOHNSON NA, CHOW, CM. Training Practices and Ergogenic Aids used by Male Bodybuilders. J Strength Cond Res. 2012. Publish Ahead of Print. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318271272a
KRAEMER WJ, FRY AC. Strength Testing: Development and evaluation of methodology. In: Maud P, Foster, C. eds. Physiological Assessment of Human Fitness. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics;1995:115-138.
MACHADO M; PEREIRA, R; WILLARDSON, JM . Short intervals between sets and individuality of muscle damage response. J Strength Cond Res 2012;26:2946-2952. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318243fdb5
RHEA MR, ALVAR BA, BURKETT LN, BALL SD. A Meta-Analysis to Determine the Dose Response for Strength Development. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:456-464. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000053727.63505.D4
Schoenfeld B. Does exercise-induced muscle damage play a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy? J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:1441-1453. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31824f207e
WILLARDSON JM, SIMÃO R, FONTANA FE. The effect of load reductions on repetition performance for commonly performed multi-joint resistance exercises. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:2939-2945. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182430170
WILLARDSON JM, KATTENBRAKER MS, KHAIRALLAH M, FONTANA FE. Research note: effect of load reductions over consecutive sets on repetition performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24:879-884. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181aeb0ea
How to Cite
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.