Development of the Basketball Exercise Simulation Test: A match-specific basketball fitness test
Keywords:Team sport, Field-Test, Assessment, Reliability, Validity
The aim of this study was to develop a reliable and valid field test that simulates the match-specific activity demands of male basketball competition. Fourteen male basketball players (mean ± SD, age: 24.9 ± 2.3 yr; stature: 187.8 ± 7.7 cm; body mass: 88.8 ± 10.5 kg) from state- (n = 6) and regional-level (n = 8) Australian competitions volunteered to participate. The Basketball Exercise Simulation Test (BEST) was developed using notational data describing the current activity demands of male basketball competition. Participants completed a repeat-sprint protocol, Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (Yo-Yo IRT) and 12-min BEST trial. Nine participants completed a further BEST trial at least 7 days later. Measures taken across the BEST included mean sprint and circuit time (s), sprint and circuit decrement (%) and total distance covered (m). Test-retest reliability was determined by calculating the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), typical error of measurement, coefficient of variation (CV) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) across the two BEST trials. Criterion validity was calculated using Pearson Correlation analysis between each BEST measure and performance in the repeat-sprint protocol and Yo-Yo IRT. Mean sprint and circuit time and sprint and circuit decrement possessed high ICCs (0.92-0.99), while all measures except sprint (14.6%) and circuit decrement (16.8%) exhibited low CVs (<5%). Significant (p < 0.01) relationships were reported between mean sprint time, sprint decrement, mean circuit time and circuit decrement during the BEST and repeat-sprint performance (r = 0.80-0.92), as well as Yo-Yo IRT distance (r = -0.71-0.85). The present results suggest that the BEST is a reliable and valid match-specific test for the combined assessment of basketball-related anaerobic and aerobic fitness.
FundingNil funding was provided.
Achten, J., & Jeukendrup, A. (2003). Heart rate monitoring: Applications and limitations. Sports Med, 33(7), 517-538. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200333070-00004
Atkinson, G., Nevill, A., & Edwards, B. (1999). What is an acceptable amount of measurement error? The application of meaningful 'analytical goals' to the reliability of sports science measurements made on a ratio scale. J Sports Sci, 17, 18.
Barfield, J., Johnson, R., Russo, P., & Cobler, D. (2007). Reliability and validity of the performance index evaluation among men's and women's college basketball players. J Strength Cond Res, 21(2), 643-645. https://doi.org/10.1519/R-19045.1
Ben Abdelkrim, N., Castagna, C., El Fazaa, S., & El Ati, J. (2010). The effect of players' standard and tactical strategy on game demands in men's basketball. J Strength Cond Res, 24(10), 2652-2662. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181e2e0a3
Ben Abdelkrim, N., El Fazaa, S., & El Ati, J. (2007). Time-motion analysis and physiological data of elite under-19-year-old basketball players during competition. Br J Sports Med, 41, 69-75. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2006.032318
Bishop, D., Spencer, M., Duffield, R., & Lawrence, S. (2001). The validity of a repeated sprint ability test. J Sci Med Sport, 4(1), 19-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1440-2440(01)80004-9
Bishop, D., & Wright, C. (2006). A time-motion analysis of professional basketball to determine the relationship between three activity profiles: High, medium and low intensity and the length of the time spent on court. Int J Perform Anal Sport, 6(1), 130-139. https://doi.org/10.1080/24748668.2006.11868361
Carvalho, H., Coelho e Silva, M., Figueiredo, A., GonÇalves, C., Castagna, C., Philippaerts, R., & Malina, R. (2011). Cross-validation and reliability of the Line-Drill Test of anaerobic performance in basketball players 14-16 years. J Strength Cond Res, 25(4), 1113-1119. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d09e38
Castagna, C., Impellizzeri, F., Rampinini, E., D'Ottavio, S., & Manzi, V. (2008). The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test in basketball players. J Sci Med Sport, 11, 202-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.02.013
Fatouros, I., Laparidis, K., Kambas, A., Chatzinikolaou, A., Techlikidou, E., Katrabasas, I., . . . Taxildaris, K. (2011). Validity and reliability of the single-trial line drill test of anaerobic power in basketball players. J Sports Med Phys Fit, 51(1), 33-41.
Glaister, M., Hauck, H., Abraham, C., Merry, K. L., Beaver, D., Woods, B., & McInnes, G. (2009). Familiarization, reliability, and comparability of a 40-m maximal shuttle run test. J Sports Sci Med, 8, 77-82.
Glaister, M., Howatson, G., Pattison, J., & McInnes, G. (2008). The reliability and validity of fatigue measures during multiple-sprint work: An issue revisited. J Strength Cond Res, 22(5), 1597-1601. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318181ab80
Higgins, T., Naughton, G., & Burgess, D. (2009). Effects of wearing compression garments on physiological and performance measures in a simulated game-specific circuit for netball. J Sci Med Sport, 12, 223-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2007.08.018
Hoffman, J., Epstein, S., Einbinder, M., & Weinstein, Y. (2000). A comparison between the Wingate Anaerobic Power test to both vertical jump and Line Drill tests in basketball players. J Strength Cond Res, 14(3), 261-264.
Holloway, K., Meir, R., Brooks, L., & Phillips, C. (2008). The Triple-120 Meter Shuttle Test: a sport-specific test for assessing anaerobic endurance fitness in rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res, 22(2), 633-639. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816600e9
Hopkins, W. (2000a). Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Med, 30(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200030010-00001
Hopkins, W. (2000b). A new view of statistics. Retrieved 16 September 2012, from http://sportsci.org/resource/stats.
Hopkins, W. (2002). A scale of magnitudes for effect statistics Retrieved 16 September 2012, from http://www.sportsci.org/resource/stats/index.html.
Impellizzeri, F., & Marcora, S. (2009). Test validation in sport physiology: Lessons learned from clinimetrics. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 4(2), 269-277. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.4.2.269
Janeira, M., & Maia, J. (1998). Game intensity in basketball. An interactionist view linking time-motion analysis, lactate concentration and heart rate. Coach Sport Sci, 2, 26-30.
Krustrup, P., Mohr, M., Amstrup, T., Rysgaard, T., Johansen, J., Steensberg, A., . . . Bangsbo, J. (2003). The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test: Physiological response, reliability, and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 35(4), 697-705. https://doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000058441.94520.32
McInnes, S., Carlson, J., Jones, C., & McKenna, M. (1995). The physiological load imposed on basketball players during competition. J Sports Sci, 13, 387-397. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419508732254
Meckel, Y., Gottlieb, R., & Eliakim, A. (2009). Repeated sprint tests in young basketball players at different game stages. Eur J Appl Physiol, 107(3), 273-279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-009-1120-8
Montgomery, P., Pyne, D., Hopkins, W., Dorman, J., Cook, K., & Minahan, C. (2008). The effect of recovery strategies on physical performance and cumulative fatigue in competitive basketball. J Sports Sci, 26(11), 1135-1145. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410802104912
Mujika, I., McFadden, G., Hubbard, M., Royal, K., & Hahn, A. (2006). The Water-Polo Intermittent Shuttle Test: a match-fitness test for water-polo players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 1, 27-39. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.1.1.27
Oliver, J., Armstrong, N., & Williams, C. (2007). Reliability and validity of a soccer-specific test of prolonged repeated-sprint ability. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 2(2), 137-149. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2.2.137
Roberts, S., Stokes, K., Weston, L., & Trewartha, G. (2010). The Bath University Rugby Shuttle Test (BURST): A pilot study. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 5(1), 64-74. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.5.1.64
Sassi, R., Dardouri, W., Yahmed, M., Gmada, N., Mahfoudhi, M., & Gharbi, Z. (2009). Relative and absolute reliability of a modified agility t-test and its relationship with vertical jump and straight sprint. J Strength Cond Res, 23(6), 1644-1651. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b425d2
Scanlan, A., Dascombe, B., & Reaburn, P. (2011). A comparison of the activity demands of elite and sub-elite Australian men's basketball competition. J Sports Sci, 29(11), 1153-1160. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2011.582509
Scanlan, A., Dascombe, B., & Reaburn, P. (2012). The construct and longitudinal validity of the Basketball Exercise Simulation Test. J Strength Cond Res, 26(2), 523-530. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318220dfc0
Sheppard, J., Gabbett, T., Taylor, K., Dorman, J., Lebedew, A., & Borgeaud, R. (2007). Development of a repeated-effort test for elite men's volleyball. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 2(3), 292-304. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2.3.292
Spencer, M., Fitzsimons, M., Dawson, B., Bishop, D., & Goodman, C. (2006). Reliability of a repeated-sprint test for field-hockey. J Sci Med Sport, 9, 181-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2005.05.001
Stone, K., Oliver, J., Hughes, M., Stembridge, M., Newcombe, D., & Meyers, R. (2011). Development of a soccer simulation protocol to include repeated sprints and agility. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 6(3), 427-431. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.6.3.427
Vaquera Jimenez, A., Refoyo Román, I., Villa Vicente, J. G., Calleja González, J., Rodríguez Marroyo, J. A., García López, J., & Sampedro Molinuevo, J. (2008). Heart rate response to game-play in professional basketball players. J Hum Sport Exerc, 3(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2008.31.01
Williams, J., Abt, G., & Kilding, A. (2009). Ball-sport Endurance and Sprint Test (BEAST90): validity and reliability of a 90-minute soccer performance test. J Strength Cond Res, 24(12), 3209-3218. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181bac356
Wragg, C., Maxwell, N., & Joust, J. (2000). Evaluation of the reliability and validity of a soccer-specific field test of repeated sprint ability. Eur J Appl Physiol, 83, 77-83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210000246
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2015 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.