Long term effects of doping in sporting records: 1886-2012
Best life times of top athletes, Olympic records, world records, and any doping information were collected from the IOC, IAAF, WADA and national anti-doping associations. About 1560 records of male and female athletes in 22 disciplines of summer and 4 winter sports were collected. Data were analysed for long-term effects of doping using non-linear regression techniques. Comparisons were made of pre-1932 records (when steroids became available) and post. Analyses were repeated using 1967, when widespread use of doping was formally acknowledged. After these dates records in a number of disciplines did not improve as predicted by extrapolation of pre-doping years results. Averaged best life records for ‘doped’ top athletes did not differ significantly from those considered ‘non-doped’. Even assuming that not all cases of doping were discovered, the practice did not alter sporting records as commonly believed, Doping may be damaging image of sports without benefitting results.
Bhasin, S., Storer, T., Berman, N., Callegari, C., Clevenger, B., Phillips, J., et al. (1996). The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men. New England Journal of Medicine, 335, pp.1–7. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199607043350101
Cycling News. (2008). Albert calls Tour win impossible without doping. Retrieved 9th September 2011 from: http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/albert-calls-tour-win-impossible-without-doping
Cycling News. (2010). Kohl: Not possible to win Tour de France without doping. Retrieved 15th July 2011 from: http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/kohl-not-possible-to-win-tour-de-france-without-doping
Cycling News. (2011). Howman: Reform needed in anti-doping fight. Retrieved 15th Nov 2011 from: http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/howman-reform-needed-in-anti-doping-fight
Erotokritou-Mulligan, I., Bassett, E., Kniess, A., Sönksen, P., & Holt, R. (2007).Validation of the growth hormone (GH)-dependent marker method of detecting GH abuse in sport through the use of independent data sets. Growth Hormone & IGF Research, 17, pp.416–423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ghir.2007.04.013
Franke, W., & Berendonk, B. (1997). Hormonal doping and androgenization of athletes: a secret program of the German DemocraticRepublic government. Clinical Chemistry, 43(7), pp.1262–1279.
Fowler, Gardner & Egstrom (1965). Effect of an anabolic steroid on physical performance of young men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 20(5), pp.1038-1040. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1922.214.171.1248
Graham, M., Davies, B., Grace, F., Kicman, A., & Baker, J. (2008).Anabolic Steroid Use: Patterns of use and detection of doping. Sports Medicine, 38(6), pp.505-525. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838060-00005
Hardie, M., Shilbury, D., Ware, I., & Bozzi, C. (2010). I wish I was 326 twenty one now-beyond doping in the Australian Peloton. Retrieved from: http://www.newcyclingpathway.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/21- 327NOW-FINAL-.pdf
Hayes, K., Thomas, O., Maynard, I., & Bawden, M. (2009). The role of confidence in world-class sport performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(11), pp.1185-1199. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903089798
Hermann, A., & Henneberg, M. (2012). The Doping Myth: 100 m sprint results are not improved by 'doping', International Journal of Drug Policy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2012.06.010
Howartson, G., & van Someren, K. (2008). The prevention and treatment of exercise induced muscle damage. Sports Medicine, 38(6), pp.483-503. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838060-00004
International Association of Athletics Federations. (2011). Retrieved 22nd July 2011 from: http://www.iaaf.org
International Olympic Committee. (2011). Retrieved 22nd July 2011 from: http://www.olympic.org/
Jeffery, N., (2008), Systematic Chinese doping scams exposed. Available: http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/chinese-doping-scams-exposed/story-e6frg7y6-1111116988254), accessed 24th April 2013.
Lentillon-Kaestner, V. (2011). The development of doping use in high-level cycling: From team-organized doping to advances in the fight against doping, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports.
Lentillon-Kaestner, V., & Carstairs, C. (2010). Doping useamong young elite cyclists: a qualitative psychosocial approach. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 20, pp.336-345. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00885.x
Liu, H., Bravata, D., Olkin, I., Friedlander, A., Liu, V., et.al., (2008). Systematic Review: The Effects of Growth Hormone on Athletic Performance. Annals of Internal Medicine, 148, pp.747-758. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-148-10-200805200-00215
Mroczkowska, H. (2009). Perception of doping-related risks by junior and senior athletes. Biomedical Human Kinetics, 1, pp.23-25. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10101-009-0007-9
Noakes, T. (2004), Tainted Glory — Doping and Athletic Performance. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(9), pp.847-849. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp048208
Roi, G., & Bianchedi, D. (2008). The science of fencing: Implications for performance and injury prevention. Sports Medicine, 38(6), pp.465-481. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838060-00003
Saugy, M., Robinson, N., Saudan, C., Baume, N., Avois, L., & Mangin, P. (2006). Human growth hormone doping in sport. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(Suppl I), pp.i35–i39. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2006.027573
Simon, P., Striegel, H., Aust, F., Dietz, K., & Ulrich, R. (2006). Doping in fitness sports: estimated number of unreported cases and individual probability of doping. Addiction, 101, pp.1640-1644. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01568.x
United States Anti-Doping Association, (2012a) Available: http://cyclinginvestigation.usada.org/, Accessed, 11th Oct 2012
Uvacsek, M., Nepusz, T., Naughton, D., Mazanov, J., Ránky, M., & Petróczi, A. (2011). Self-admitted behavior and perceived use of performance-enhancing vs psychoactive drugs among competitive athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 21, pp.224–234. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01041.x
Vealey, R. S. (2001). Understanding and enhancing self-confidence in athletes. In R. N. Singer, H. A. Hausenblas, & C.M. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology, pp.550–565. New York: Wiley.
World Anti-Doping Association. (2010). 2010 Laboratory Statistics Report. Retrieved 15th July 2011 from: http://www.wada-ma.org/Documents/Resources/Statistics/Laboratory_Statistics/WADA_2010_Laboratory_Statistics_Report.pdf
World Anti Doping Association. (2011). Retrieved 15th July 2011 from: http://www.wada-ama.org
World Anti-Doping Agency, (2012) World Anti Doping Agency, 2012a, A brief history of anti-doping, Avaliable: http://www.wada-ama.org/en/About-WADA/History/, accessed on 25th Oct 2012.