Development and initial validation of an instrument measuring athletes’ volition


  • Miltiadis Proios Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
  • Ioannis Proios Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece



Development, Validation, Volition, Sport


This study describes the development and initial validation of a new instrument for the measurement of athletes’ volition – the Measure Athletes’ Volition (MAV). The findings from the exploratory factor analyses, which used 371 adolescent athletes, provided evidence for a six-factor solution with 23-item – goal (three items), effort with difficulties (four items), effort continuous (three items), persistence on effort (five items), decision making (three items), and intention (five items). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 23-item and six-factor structure provided acceptable model fit. In addition, the findings further supported the reliability of the above mentioned model.


Download data is not yet available.


Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckman (Eds.), Action control from cognition to behavior, 13-39. Berlin: Springer – Verlag.

Anastasi, A. (1997). Psychological testing (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy mechanism in human agency. American Psychologist, 37, pp.122-147.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A., & Adams, N.E. (1977). Analysis of self-efficacy theory of behavioral change. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, pp.287-308.

Bandura, A., & Cervone D. (1983). Self-evaluative and self-efficacy mechanisms governing the motivational effects of goal systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, pp.1017-1028.

Bandura, A., & Schunk, D.H. (1981). Cultivating competence, self-efficacy, and intrinsic interest through proximal self-motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, pp.586-598.

Bartlett, M.S. (1950). Tests of significance in factor analysis. British Journal of Psychology, 3, pp.77-85.

Beckmann, J. (1987). Metaprocesses and the regulation of behavior. In F. Halisch & J. Kuhl (Eds.), Motivation, intention and volition. Berlin: Springer, 371-386.

Beckmann, J. (1999). Volition und Sportliches Handeln [Volition and athletic performance]. In D. Alfermann & O. Stoll (Eds.), Motivation und volition im sport—Vom Planen zum Handeln. Koln: bps-Verlag, pp.13-26.

Beckmann, J., & Kazen, M. (1994). Action and state orientation and the performance of top athletes. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Volition and personality: Action and state orientation. Seattle: Hogrefe, 439-451.

Beckmann, J., & Strang, H. (1991). Handlungskontrolle im sport. Sportpsychologie, 5(4), pp.5-10.

Beckmann, J., Szymanski, B., & Elbe, A.M. (2004). Erziehen Verbundsysteme zur Unselbsta¨ndigkeit? [Do school systems for young elite athletes promote helplessness?]. Sportwissenschaft, 34, pp.65-80.

Browe, M.W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage,132-162.

Burton, D., & Naylor, S. (2002). The Jekyll/Hyde nature of goals: Revisiting and updating goal setting. In T. S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in Sports Psychology. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 459-499.

Byrne, B.M. (2001). Structural equation modeling with AMOS. Basic concepts, applications, and programming. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (2000). The ''what'' and ''why'' of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, pp.227-268.

Birrer, D., & Morgan, G. (2010). Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine Science of Sports, 20(2), pp.78-87.

Calvo, T.G., Cervello, E., Jimenez, R., Iglesias, D., & Murcia, J.A.M. (2010). Using self-determination theory to explain sport persistence and dropout in adolescent athletes. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(2), pp.677-684.

Cattell, R.B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, pp.140-161.

Cattell, R.B. (1978). The scientific use of factor analysis in behavioral and life sciences. New York: Plenum Press.

Comrey, A. (1978). Common methodological problems in factor analytical studies. Journal of Clinical & Consulting Psychology, 46, pp.648-659.

Cortina, J.M. (1993). What is coefficient alpha? An examination of theory and applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, pp.98-104.

Corno, L. (2004). Introduction to the special issue work habits and work styles: Volition in education. Teachers College Record, 106(9), pp.1669-1694.

Corno, L., & Kanfer, R. (1993). The role of volition in learning and performance. Review of Research in Education, 19, pp.301-341.

Costello, A.B., & Osborne, J.W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment Research & Evaluation, 10, pp.1-7.

Elbe, A.M., Szymanski, B., & Beckmann, J. (2005). The development of volition in young elite athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 6, pp.559-569.

Filby, W.C.D., Maynard, I.W., & Graydon, J.K. (1999). The effect of multiple-goal strategies on performance outcomes in training and competition. Journal of Applied & Sport Psychology, 1, pp.230-246.

Gorsuch, R.L. (1983). Factor analysis. Hillsdale, NL: Erlbaum.

Gould, D. (2001). Goal setting for peak performance. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (4th ed.). California: Mayfield, 190-205.

Heckmhausen, H. (1991) (English Transl: P. K. Leppmann). Motivation and action. Berlin: Springer.

Hinkin, T.R. (1995). A review of scale development practices in the study of organizations. Journal of Management, 21, pp.967-988.

Hu, L.T., & Bentler, P. (1995). Evaluating model fit. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural Equation Modeling. Concepts, Issues, and Applications. London: Sage, 76-99.

Hu, L.T., & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariances structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, pp.1-55.

Joreskog, K.G. (1993). Latent Variable Modeling with Ordinal Variables. In K. Haagen, D. J. Bartholomew, & M. Deistler (Eds.), Statistical Modeling and Latent Variables. Elasevier Science Publisher, 163-171.

Kaiser, H.F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39, pp.31-36.

Kehr, H.M. (2004). Integrating implicit motives, explicit motives, and perceived abilities: The compensatory model of work motivation and volition. Academy of Management Review, 28(3), pp.479-499.

Kline, R.B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.

Kostaridou-Efklides A. (2012). Motivation psychology. Pedio: Athens. (In Greek language).

Kuhl, J. (1983). Motivation, Konflikt und Handlungskontrolle [Motivation, conflict and action control]. Berlin: Springer.

Kuhl, J. (1985). Volitional mediators of cognition-behavior consistency: Self-regulatory processes and action versus state orientation. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior. Berlin: Springer, 101-128.

Kuhl, J. (1987). Action control: The maintenance of motivational states. In F. Halisch & J. Kuhl (Eds.), Motivation, intention, and volition. Berlin: Springer, 279-307.

Kuhl, J., Fuhrmann, A. (1998). Decomposing self-regulation and self-control: The volitional components inventory. In J. Heckhausen & C. Dweck (Eds.), Lifespan perspectives on motivation and control. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 15–99.

Kuhl, J., & Goschke, T. (1994). A theory of action control: Mental subsystems, modes of control, and volitional conflict resolution strategies. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Volition and personality: Action versus state orientation. Seattle: Hogrefe & Huber, 93-124.

Lufi, D., & Cohen, A. (1987). A scale for measuring persistence in children. Journal of Personality Assessment, 51(2), pp.178-185.

Ntoumanis, N. (2001). A step-by-step guide to SPSS for sport and exercise studies. London and New York: Routledge.

Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Proios, M., Mavrovouniotis, F., & Proios, M.I.C.H. (2012). Proposal of psychological preparation in artistic gymnastics. Science of Gymnastics Journal, 4(2), pp.53-64.

Pallant, J. (2010). SPSS Survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows (4th ed.). Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Puni, A.C. (1971). Volitional preparation in sport. Leningrad: GDOIFK.

Puni, A.C. (1977). Psychological foundations of volitional preparation in sport. Leningrad: GDOIFK.

Robinson, J.P., Shaver, P.R., & Wrightsman, L.S. (1991). Criteria for scale selection and evaluation in measure of personality and social psychological attitudes. San Diego: California Academic Press.

Ryba, T.V, Stambulova. N.B., & Wrisberg, C.A. (2009). Forward to the past: Puni's model of volitional preparation in sport. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 7, pp.275-291.

Schmitt, N. (1996). Uses and abuses of coefficient alpha. Psychological Assessment, 8, pp.350-353.

Sokolowski, K. (1993). Emotion und Volition [Emotion and volition]. Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.

Stapleton, C.D. (1997). Basic concepts in exploratory factor analysis (EFA) as a tool evaluate score validity: A right-brained approach. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwest Educational Research Association, Austin, TX, April. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 407419)

Srevens, J. (1996). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Tabachnick, B.G., & Fidell, L.S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

West, S.G., Finch, J.F., & Curran, P.J. (1995). Structural equation models with nonnormal variables: problems and remedies. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: concepts, issues and applications. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 56–75.

Williams, J.M. (2001). Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (4th ed.). California: Mayfield.


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Proios, M., & Proios, I. (2015). Development and initial validation of an instrument measuring athletes’ volition. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 9(4), 761–772.



Performance Analysis of Sport

Most read articles by the same author(s)