Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Development and initial validation of an instrument measuring athletes’ volition

Miltiadis Proios, Ioannis Proios



This study describes the development and initial validation of a new instrument for the measurement of athletes’ volition – the Measure Athletes’ Volition (MAV). The findings from the exploratory factor analyses, which used 371 adolescent athletes, provided evidence for a six-factor solution with 23-item – goal (three items), effort with difficulties (four items), effort continuous (three items), persistence on effort (five items), decision making (three items), and intention (five items). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 23-item and six-factor structure provided acceptable model fit. In addition, the findings further supported the reliability of the above mentioned model.


Development; Validation; Volition; Sport


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