Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Teaching method of physical education and sports by prescriptive or heuristic learning

Gaetano Raiola, Domenico Tafuri



The didactics traditionally is imparted by the coach/trainer/teacher with tutorials that have the theoretical basis in the Cognitive approach. It means the coach/trainer/teacher illustrates in greater detail by the coach, are of Partial type, Varied, Randomized and Mental Training. It refers to the models of motor control to Open Loop, Closed Loop,  and Motor Program Generalized. Teaching Methods of Physical activity is also imparted by another approach called Ecological-Dynamic where the coach does not require the tutorials, but builds a setting learning environment aimed at variety of learning. It refers to the models for the control of the Motor Imagery and Freedom Degrees. The first one could be in first person and in third person; the second one is three consecutive steps: Reduction, Exploration and Capitalization of the degrees of freedom. Aim is to study the issue of motor control theory and its relation to learning process and body knowledge. It carries out  specific aspect of learning approach. Main results  show two types of correspondence: 1) between cognitive approach and motor control closed loop, open loop and generalized motor program; furthermore, there is a significant correspondence among order, demand, sequence and timing on movement learning: 2) between  ecological dynamic approach and motor control Motor Imagery and Freedom Degrees; furthermore, there is a significant correspondence among setting, learning environment and specific strategies of teaching method such as cooperative learning, role playing, circle time, brain storming, peer education, tutorship, focus group. In this way it can see the invasive role of the coach/trainer/teacher in cognitive approach and non-invasive role in ecological dynamic approach.


cognitive, ecological-dynamic, motor control, skills


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