Physical and physiological attributes of soccer goalkeepers: Should we rely only on means and standard deviations?

Pantelis Nikolaidis, Gal Ziv, Michal Arnon, Ronnie Lidor

Abstract

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to profile physical characteristics and physiological attributes of soccer goalkeepers (GKs) who were divided into three age groups – under 16 years, 16-19, and over 19, and (b) to examine the intra-individual variability among the GKs in each age group on all physical and physiological measurements performed in the study.  The GKs underwent a series of physical (e.g., height, body mass, and percentage of body fat) and physiological (e.g., anaerobic profile, power and strength, and flexibility) tests.  The three main findings of the current study were: (a) differences in physical characteristics and physiological attributes existed between GKs in the three age groups, (b) intra-individual variability can be found in most physical characteristics and physiological attributes of the GKs, and (c) the intra-individual variability was observed in all three groups.  These findings emphasize the need for coaches to examine the intra-individual variability in GKs on their teams.  These findings can be used by coaches when planning specific training programs for GKs of different age and skill levels.

Keywords

Soccer; Exercise test; Goalkeeper; Athletic performance

References

Aragón-Vargas, L.F. (2000). Evaluation of four vertical jump tests: methodology, reliability, validity, and accuracy. Measurement in Physical Education & Exercise Science, 4(4), pp.215-228. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327841MPEE0404_2

Astrand, P.O., Rodahl, K., Dahl, H.A., & Stromme, S.B. (2003). Textbook of work physiology: physiological bases of exercise (4th. Ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Ball, K.A., Best, R.J., & Wrigley, T.V. (2003). Inter- and intra-individual analysis in elite sport: pistol shooting. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 19(1), pp.28-38. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.19.1.28

Borg, G., & Dahlstrom, H. (1962). The reliability and validity of a physical work test. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 55(4), pp.353-361. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-1716.1962.tb02449.x

Carling, C., & Orhant, E. (2010). Variation in body composition in professional soccer players: interseasonal and intraseasonal changes and the effects of exposure time and player position. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 24(5), pp.1332-1339. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cc6154

Davis, J.A., Brewer, J., & Atkin, D. (1992). Pre-season physiological characteristics of English first and second division soccer players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 10(6), pp.541-547. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640419208729950

De Baranda, P.S., Ortega, E., & Palao, J.M. (2008). Analysis of goalkeepers' defence in the World Cup in Korea and Japan in 2002. European Journal of Sport Science, 8(3), pp.127-134. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390801919045

Essendrop, M., Schibye, B., & Hansen, K. (2001). Reliability of isometric muscle strength tests for the trunk, hands and shoulders. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 28(6), pp.379-387. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-8141(01)00044-0

Gabbe, B.J., Bennell, K.L., Wajswelner, H., & Finch, C.F. (2004). Reliability of common lower extremity musculoskeletal screening tests. Physical Therapy in Sport, 5(2), pp.90-97. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1466-853X(04)00022-7

Gil, S., Gil, J., Ruiz, F., Irazusta, A., & Irazusta, J. (2007). Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of young soccer players according to their playing position: relevance for the selection process. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(2), pp.438-445. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-200705000-00026

Hassmen, P., Raglin, J.S., & Lundqvist, C. (2004). Intra-individual variability in state anxiety and self-confidence in elite golfers. Journal of Sport Behavior, 27(3), pp.277-290.

Heller, J. (2005). Laboratory manual for human and exercise physiology. Charles University, Prague: The Karolinum Press.

Hencken, C., & White, C. (2006). Anthropometric assessment of Premiership soccer players in relation to playing position. European Journal of Sport Science, 6(4), pp.205-211. https://doi.org/10.1080/17461390601012553

Inbar, O., Bar-Or, O., & Skinner, J. (1996). The wingate anaerobic test. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Matkovic, B.R., Misigoj-Durakovic, M., Matkovic, B., Jankovic, S., Ruzic, L., Leko, G., & Kondric, M. (2003). Morphological differences of elite Croatian soccer players according to the team position. Collegium Antropologicum, 27(1), pp.167-174.

Nikolaidis, P., Ziv, G., Arnon, M., & Lidor, R. (2012). Physical characteristics and physiological attributes of female volleyball players - The need for individual data. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 26(9), pp.2547-2557. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31823f8c06

Parizkova, J. (1978). Lean body mass and depot fat during autogenesis in humans. In J. Parizkova & V. Rogozkin (Eds.), Nutrition, Physical Fitness and Health: International Series on Sport Sciences (pp.22). Baltimore, MA: University Park Press.

Reilly, T., Bangsbo, J., & Franks, A. (2000). Anthropometric and physiological predispositions for elite soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18(9), pp.669-683. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410050120050

Skinner, J.S. (2005). Exercise testing and exercise prescription for special cases: theoretical basis and clinical application (3rd.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Sutton, L., Scott, M., Wallace, J., & Reilly, T. (2009). Body composition of English Premier League soccer players: influence of playing position, international status, and ethnicity. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27(10), pp.1019-1026. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410903030305

Tahara, Y., Moji, K., Tsunawake, N., Fukuda, R., Nakayama, M., Nakagaichi, M., … Aoyagi, K. (2006). Physique, body composition and maximum oxygen consumption of selected soccer players of Kunimi High School, Nagasaki, Japan. Journal of Physiological Anthropology, 25(4), pp.291-297. https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa2.25.291

Wong, P.L., Chamari, K., Dellal, A., & Wisloff, U. (2009). Relationship between anthropometric and physiological characteristics in youth soccer players. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 23(4), pp.1204-1210. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31819f1e52

Ziv, G., & Lidor, R. (2011). Physical characteristics, physiological attributes, and on-field performances of soccer goalkeepers. International Journal of Sport Physiology and Performance, 6(4), pp.509-524. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.6.4.509




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2015.102.07