The effects of exercise and two pre-exercise fluid amounts on cognition

Todd Patrick Backes

Abstract

Exercise is associated with elevated mood states and arousal.  Observational studies support the claim that exercise can help individuals think more “clearly’ with reports of improved mood and feelings of psychological well-being following exercise.  However, laboratory studies have produced equivocal results.  The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of exercise intensity and two likely pre-exercise fluid amounts consumed by euhydrated athletes on cognitive performance.  Fifteen college age students were randomly assigned to either a 150 ml or a 500 ml fluid condition on the first test day and received the other fluid condition on the second test day.  Prior to exercise subjects completed baseline computerized cognitive tests then began a treadmill protocol of three 6 min stages at increasing intensity after which subjects completed cognitive tests.  A second treadmill portion started at 7.5 mph for 2 min then speed was increased 0.5 mph every 30 s until voluntary exhaustion and final cognitive testing was completed.  Our results demonstrate a facilitation of cognitive function in response to exercise with the exception of the match to sample cognitive test which showed lack of facilitation of cognition in the 500 ml condition at moderate exercise.  Our research contributes to the growing field of exercise and its effects on cognition.  Specifically working memory cognitive tests showed facilitation with exercise.  These results may be applicable to a typical exercising population since our study included a common exercise mode (treadmill) at moderate and high intensities and likely fluid amounts.

Keywords

Physiology; Nutrition; Performance; Hydration; Working memory

References

Berger, B. G. (1996). Psychological benefits of an active lifestyle: What we know and what we need to know. Quest, 48(3), 330-353. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.1996.10484201

Chmura, J., Krysztofiak, H., Ziemba, A. W., Nazar, K., & Kaciuba-Uscilko, H. (1998). Psychomotor performance during prolonged exercise above and below the blood lactate threshold. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. O., 77 (1–2), 77–80.

Cotman, C. W., Berchtold, N. C., & Christie, L. A. (2007). Exercise builds brain health: key roles of growth factor cascades and inflammation. Trends Neurosci.,30(9),464–472. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2007.06.011

Dietrich, A. (2005). Transient hypofrontality as a mechanism for the psychological effects of exercise. Psychiat. Res., 145,79-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2005.07.033

Dietrich, A., & Sparling, P. B. (2004). Endurance exercise selectively impairs prefrontal dependant cognition. Brain Cognition,55,516-524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2004.03.002

Easterbrook, J. A. (1959). The effect of emotion on cue utilization and the organization of behavior. Psychol. Rev., 66, 183–201. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0047707

Epting, L. K., & Overman, W. H. (2008). Sex-sensitive tasks in men and women: a search for performance fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. Behav. Neurosci., 112,1304-1317. https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.112.6.1304

Eysenck, M. W. (1982). Attention and arousal, cognition and performance. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-68390-9

Hillman, C. H., Erickson, K. I., & Kramer, A. F. (2008). Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 9(1), 58–65. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2298

Hiroki, Y., Ippeita, D., Daisuke, T., Morimasa, K., Masako, O., Yasushi, K., & Hideaki, S. (2010). Acute moderate exercise elicits dorsolateral prefrontal activation and improves cognitive performance with Stroop test. NeuroImage, 50, 1702-1710. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.12.023

Hull, C. L. (1943). Principles of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. Oxford, England: D. Appleton-Century Company, Incorporated.

Jones, W. P., Loe, S. A., Krach, S. K., Rager, R. Y., & Jones, H. M. (2008). Automated Neurophysiological Assessment Metrics and Woodcock-Johnson III tests of cognitive ability: a concurrent validity study. Clin. Neurophysiol., 22,305-320.

Kamijo, K., Nishihira, Y., Hatta, A., Kaneda, T., Wasaka, T., Kida, T., & Kuroiwa, K. (2004). Differential influences of exercise intensity on information processing in the central nervous system. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 92 (3), 305–311. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1097-2

LoBue-Estes, C., Horvath, P. J., Burton, H., & Leddy, J. (2008). Exhaustive exercise affects cognitive function in trained and untrained women. Percept. Motor Skill,107, 933-945. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.107.3.933-945

McMorris, T., & Graydon, J. (2000). The effect of incremental exercise on cognitive performance. Int. J. Sport Psychol., 31(1), 66-81.

Morgan, W. P., & O'Connor, P. J. (1988). Exercise and mental health. Exercise adherence: Its impact on public health, 91-121.

Oxendine, J. B. (1984). Psychology of motor learning. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Raglin, J. S., & Hanin, Y. L. (2000). Competitive anxiety. Emotions in sport, 93-111.

Short, P., Cernich, A., Wilken, J. A., & Kane, R. L. (2007). Initial construct validation of frequently employed ANAM measures through structural equation modelling. Arch. Clin. Neuropsych., 22(1), 63-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acn.2006.10.012

Thomson, W. R., Gordon, N. F., & Pescatello, L. S. (2010). ACSM's Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Tomporowski, P. D. (2003). Effects of acute bouts of exercise on cognition. Acta Psychol., 112, 297-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-6918(02)00134-8

Tomporowski, P. D., & Ellis, N. R. (1986). Effects of Exercise on Cognitive – Processes – A Review. Psychol. Bull., 99 (3), 338-346. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.99.3.338

Yerkes, R., & Dodson, J. (1908). The Relation of Strength of Stimulus to Rapidity of Habit-Formation. J. Comp. Neurol. Psychol., 18, 459-482. https://doi.org/10.1002/cne.920180503




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2015.102.08