The evolution of motor creativity during primary education


  • Aida Domínguez University of Vigo, Spain
  • M. Pino Díaz-Pereira University of Vigo, Spain
  • Aurora Martínez-Vidal University of Vigo, Spain



Motor creativity, Primary education, Evaluation, Development


A number of researchers have verified the possibility of enhancing motor creativity through specific physical education programmes. Nevertheless,little is known about the developmental pattern or the most critical stages in the acquisition of motor creativity. The broad objective of this study was to determine whether significant changes in motor creativity occur during primary education, and if so, when. A total of 84 Spanish girls and boys were evaluated using tests taken or adapted from the Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement tasks and Bertsch' Tests of Motor Creativity. In general, the results show that motor creativity – especially fluency and flexibility - increase with progression through school, though different aspects of creativity show different trends. In particular, motor fluency increased especially rapidly between ages 6 and 9 years, and the symbolic transformation of objects and movements between ages 8 and 11 years.


Download data is not yet available.


Beraldo, S., & Polleti, C. (1991). Preparación Física Total [Total physical preparation]. Barcelona: Editorial Hispano Europea.

Bertsch, J. (1983). La Créativité Motrice. Son évaluation et son optimisation dans la pédagogie des situations motrices à l'école [Motor creativity, its evaluation and optimization in the teaching of motor situations in schools]. Unpublished doctoral. Dissertation. Paris: INSEP.

Bournelli, P. (1998). The development of motor creativity in elementary school children through a specific physical education program. Journal of Biology of Exercise, 3, pp.68-82.

Bournelli, P., Makri, A., & Mylonas, K. (2009). Motor Creativity and Self-Concept. Creativity Research Journal, 21(1), pp.104-110.

Bournelli, P., & Mountakis,C. (2008). The development of motor creativity in elementary school children and its retention. Creativity Research Journal, 20(1), pp.72-80.

Cenizo, J.M. (2005). Implicaciones de los recursos materiales de Educación Física en el desarrollo de la Creatividad Motriz [Implications of the material resources of Physical Education for the development of Motor Creativity]. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Univer. Seville, Spain.

Cleland, F.E., & Gallahue, D.L. (1993). Young children´s divergent movement ability. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 77, pp.535-544.

Chatoupis, C. (2012). Young children's divergent movement ability: a study revisited. Early Child Development and Care, 183(1), pp.92-108.

Hargreaves, D.J. (1982). The development of ideational fluency: some normative data. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 52, pp.109-12.

Lubart, T.I., & Georgsdottir, A. (2004). Creativity: Developmental and cross-cultural issues. In S. Lau, N.N.A. Hui, & Y.C.G. Ng (Eds.) Creativity: When East Meets West. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.

Maker, C.J., Jo, S., & Muammar O.M. (2008). Development of creativity: The influence of varying levels of implementation of the DISCOVER curriculum model, a non traditional pedagogical approach. Learning and Individual Differences, 18(4), pp.402-417.

Martínez, A., & Díaz, M.P. (2006). Eficacia de un programa de intervención para la mejora de la creatividad motriz en un grupo de discapacitados psíquicos [Effectiveness of an intervention programme to improve motor creativity in a group of mentally disabled persons]. Apunts Educación Física y Deportes, 84, pp.11-19.

Pérez, P.M. (2009). Researching, measuring and teaching creativity and innovation: a strategy for the future. In E. Villalba (Ed.), Measuring Creativity. Proceedings of the conference "Can creativity be measured". Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Runco, M.A., & Charles, R.E. (1997). Developmental trends in creative potential and creative performance. In M. A. Runco (Ed.), The Creativity Research Handbook (Vol. 1) New York: Hampton Press. pp.115-152.

Scibinetti, P., Tocci, N., & Pesce, C. (2011). Motor Creativity and Creative Thinking in Children: The Diverging Role of Inhibition. Creativity Research Journal, 23(2), pp.262-272.

Torrance, E.P. (1963). Education and the creative potential. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Torrance, E.P. (1966). The Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (1st ed.). Bensenville, Illinois: Scholastic Testing Service, Inc.

Torrance, E.P. (1968). A longitudinal examination of the fourth-grade slump in creativity. Gifted Child Quartely, 12, pp.195-199.

Torrance, E.P. (1981). Norms-technical manual:Thinking creatively in action and movement, Torrance test of creative thinking. Bensenville, Illinois: Scholastic Testing Service, Inc.

Urban, K.K. (1991). On the development of creativity in children. Creativity Research Journal, 4(2), pp.177-191.

Weineck, J. (1998). Entrenamiento Óptimo [Optimal training]. Barcelona: Editorial Hispano Europea.

Winter, R. (1986). Las fases sensibles. Orientaciones generales, nociones y datos prácticos sobre las fases sensibles [The critical phases. General orientation, notions and practical data concerning the critical phases]. Revista Stadium, 115, pp.13-20.

Zachopoulou, Ε., Makri, Α., & Pollatou, Ε. (2009). Evaluation of children's creativity: Psychometric properties of Torrance's "Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement" test. Early Child Development and Care, 179(3), pp.317-328.


Statistics RUA



How to Cite

Domínguez, A., Díaz-Pereira, M. P., & Martínez-Vidal, A. (2015). The evolution of motor creativity during primary education. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 10(2), 583–591.



Physical Education / Children & Exercise

Most read articles by the same author(s)