Speed and power predictors of change of direction ability in elite snow athletes
Keywords:Olympic athletes, Winter sports, Cod speed, Elite athletes, Jump squat
Change of direction ability (COD speed) is an important physical component of snow sports. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between regular speed and vertical jumping ability, and COD speed in elite snow athletes. Moreover, the correlations between relative mean propulsive power (assessed in the jump squat exercise) and COD speed were quantified. Sixteen elite snow sport athletes executed squat jumps, countermovement jumps, jump squats, and 25 m sprint tests, in addition to a Zig-zag change of direction speed test. The outcomes revealed that vertical jumping height and mean propulsive power are strongly correlated (r ≈ 0.90) with COD speed. Furthermore, snow athletes capable of sprinting faster in a linear course of 25 m performed better in COD speed tests ( r = 0.91). Our results support the use of loaded and unloaded vertical jumping and regular speed tests to evaluate/monitor predictors of COD speed in elite snow athletes. Finally, these relationships suggest that plyometrics and regular speed training should be considered by coaches as effective strategies to enhance COD ability in this specific group of subjects.
Alemdaroglu, U. (2012). The Relationship Between Muscle Strength, Anaerobic Performance, Agility, Sprint Ability and Vertical Jump Performance in Professional Basketball Players. J Hum Kinet, 31(2), pp.99-106. https://doi.org/10.2478/v10078-012-0016-6
Barnes, J., Schilling, B., Falvo, M., Weiss, L., Creasy, A., & Fry, A. (2007). Relationship of jumping and agility performance in female volleyball athletes. J Strength Cond Res, 21(4), pp.1192-1196.
Chaouachi, A., Manzi, V., Chaalali, A., Wong, D.P., Chamari, K., & Castagna, C. (2012). Determinants analysis of change-of-direction ability in elite soccer players. J Strength Cond Res, 26(10), pp.2667-2676. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318242f97a
Delextrat, A. & Cohen, D. (2008). Physiological testing of basketball players: Toward a standard evaluation of anaerobic fitness. J Strength Cond Res, 22(4), pp.1066-1072. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181739d9b
Drinkwater, E.J., Pyne, D.B., & McKenna, M.J. (2008). Design and interpretation of anthropometric and fitness testing of basketball players. Sports Med, 38(7), pp.565-578. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200838070-00004
Gorski, T., Rosser, T., Hoppeler, H., & Vogt, M. (2014). An Anthropometric and Physical Profile of Young Swiss Alpine Skiers Between 2004 and 2011. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 9(1), pp.108-116. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2013-0223
Hansen, K.T., Croning, J.B., & Newton, M.J. (2011). The effect of cluster loading on force, velocity, and power during ballistic jump squat training. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 6(4), pp.455-68. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.6.4.455
Harris, N., Cronin, J., Hopkins, W., & Hanses K.T. (2008). Relationship between sprint times and the strength/power outputs of a machine squat jump. J Strength Cond Res, 22(3), pp.691-698. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31816d8d80
Heikkinen, D. (1998). Physical Testing Characteristics and Technical Event Performance of Junior Alpine Ski Racers (Master Thesis). The University of Maine.
Hoff, J., Gran, A., & Helgerud, J. (2002). Maximal strength training improves aerobic endurance performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 12(5), pp.288-95. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0838.2002.01140.x
Hoff, J.; Helgerud, J., & Wisloff, U. (1999). Maximal strength training improves work economy in trained female cross-country skiers. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31(6), pp.870-877. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199906000-00016
Little T, & Williams A.G. (2006) Effects of differential stretching protocols during warm-ups on high-speed motor capacities in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res, 20(1), pp.203-207.
Lockie, R.G., Schultz, A.B., Callaghan, S.J., Jeffriess, M.D., & Berry, S.P. (2013). Reliability and Validity of a New Test of Change-of-Direction Speed for Field-Based Sports: the Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT). J Sports Sci Med, 12(1), pp.88-96.
López-Segovia, M., Marques, M.C., Van den Tillaar, R., & González-Badillo, J.J. (2011). Relationships between vertical jump and full squat power outputs with sprint times in u-21 soccer players. J Hum Kinet, 30(10), pp.135-44.
Losnegard, T., Mikkelsen, K., Ronnestad, B.R., Hallén, J., Rud, B., & Raastad, T. (2011). The effect of heavy strength training on muscle mass and physical performance in elite cross-country skiers. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 21(3), pp.389-401. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01074.x
Loturco I, Artioli G.G., Kobal R., Gil S., & Franchini E. (2014). Predicting punching acceleration from selected strength and power variables in elite karate athletes: a multiple regression analysis. J Strength Cond Res, 28(7), pp.1826-1832. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000329
Loturco, I., Ugrinowitsch, C., Roschel, H., Lopes Mellinger, A., Gomes, F., Tricoli, V., & González-Badillo, J.J. (2013). Training at the Optimum Power Zone Produces Similar Performance Improvements to Traditional Strength Training. J Sports Sci Med, 12(1), pp.109-115a.
Loturco, I., Ugrinowitsch, C., Tricoli, V., Pivetti, B., & Roschel, H. (2013). Different loading schemes in power training during the preseason promote similar performance improvements in Brazilian elite soccer players. J Strength Cond Res, 27(7), pp.1791-1797b. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3182772da6
McBride, J., Blow, D., Kirby, T., Haines, T., Dayne, A., & Triplett, N. (2009). Relationship between maximal squat strength and five, ten, and forty yard sprint times. J Strength Cond Res, 23(6), pp.1633-1636. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b2b8aa
McBride, J.M., Triplett-McBride, T., Davie, A., & Newton, R.U. (2002). The effect of heavy- vs. light-load jump squats on the development of strength, power, and speed. J Strength Cond Res, 16(1), pp.75-82.
Newton, R.U., & Kraemer, W.J. (1994). Developing explosive muscular power: implications for a mixed method training strategy. Strength Cond J, 16(5), pp.20-31. https://doi.org/10.1519/1073-6840(1994)016<0020:DEMPIF>2.3.CO;2
Newton, R.U., Kraemer, W.J., & Hakkinen, K. (1999). Effects of ballistic training on preseason preparation of elite volleyball players. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 31(2), pp.323-330. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199902000-00017
Nimphius, S., McGuigan, M., & Newton, R. (2010). Relationship Between Strength, Power, Speed, and Change of Direction Performance of Female Softball Players. J Strength Cond Res, 24(4), pp.885-895. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d4d41d
Patterson, C., Raschner, C., & Platzer, H. (2009). Power Variables and Bilateral Force Differences During Unloaded and Loaded Squat Jumps in High Performance Alpine Ski Racers. J Strength Cond Res, 23(3), pp.779-787. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a2d7b3
Perrey, S., Millet, G., Candau, R., & Rouillon, J.D. (2000). Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Roller Ski Skating: Effects of Speed. J Appli Biomech, 16(8), pp.264-275. https://doi.org/10.1123/jab.16.3.264
Platzer, H.P., Raschner, C., Patterson, C., & Lambert, S. (2009). Comparison of Physical Characteristcs and Performance Among Elite Snowboarders. J Strength Cond Res, 23(5), pp.1427-1432. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181aa1d9f
Raschner, C., Muller, L., Patterson, C., Platzer, H., Ebenbichler, C., Luchner, R., … Hildebrandt, C. (2013). Current performance testing trends in junior and elite Austrian alpine ski, snowboard and ski crss racers. Sport Orthop Traum, 29(5), pp.193-202. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orthtr.2013.07.016
Saez De Villarreal, E., Requena, B., Izquierdo, M., & Gonzalez-Badillo, J.J. (2013). Enhancing sprint and strength performance: combined versus maximal power, traditional heavy-resistance and plyometric training. J Sci Med Sport, 16(2), pp.146-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.05.007
Sanchez-Medina, L., Perez, C.E., & Gonzalez-Badillo, J.J. (2010). Importance of the propulsive phase in strength assessment. Int J Sports Med, 31(2), pp.123-129. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1242815
Sandbakk, O., Sandbakk, S.B., Supej, M., & Holmberg, H.C. (2014). The velocity and energy profiles of elite cross-country skiers executing downhill turns with different radii. Int J Sports Physiol Perform, 9(1), pp.41-47a. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2013-0383
Sandbakk, S.B., Supej, M., Sandbakk, O., & Holmberg, H.C. (2014). Downhill turn techniques and associated physical characteristics in cross-country skiers. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 24(4), pp.708-716b. https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12063
Sleivert, G., & Taingahue, M. (2004). The relationship between maximal jump squat power and sprint acceleration in athletes. Eur J Appl Physiol, 91(1), pp.46-52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-003-0941-0
Stöggl, T., Müller, E, Ainegren, M., & Holmberg, H.C. (2011).General strength and kinetics: fundamental to sprinting faster in cross country skiing? Scand J Med Sci Sports, 21(6), pp.791-803. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01078.x
Turnbull, J.R., Kilding, A.E., & Keogh, J.W.L. (2009). Physiology of alpine skiing. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 19(2), pp.146-155. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.00901.x
Turner, A., Unholz, C., Potts, N., & Coleman, S. (2012). Peak power, force, and velocity during jump squats in professional rugby players. J Strength Cond Res, 26(6), 1594-1600. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318234ebe5
Young, W., Hawken, M., & McDonald, L. (1996). Relationship between speed, agility, and strength qualities in Australian rules football. Strength Cond Coach, 4(4), pp.3-6.
Young, W., James, R. & Montgomery, I. (2002). Is muscle power related to running with changes of direction? J Sports Mec Phys Fitness, 42(3), pp.282-288.
Ziv, G., & Lidor, R. (2010). Vertical jump in female and male basketball players- a review of observational and experimental studies. J Sci Med Sport, 13(3), pp.332-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2009.02.009
How to Cite
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.