Effects of swim training on energetic and performance in women masters’ swimmers
Keywords:Training, Gender, Metabolic determinants, Swimming season
AbstractThe aim of this study was to analyze and compare the changes of performance and energetic profile of female masters swimmers over a season, in three distinct time periods (TP): December (TP1), March (TP2) and June (TP3). Eleven female masters swimmers performed an all-out 200 m freestyle to evaluate the swimmers’ energetic adaptations. The 200 m freestyle performance, the total energy expenditure (Etot) and the partial contribution of aerobic energy source (%Aer), partial contribution of anaerobic lactic energy source (%AnL) and partial contribution of anaerobic alactic energy source (%AnAl) contributions were estimated or assessed. Female masters swimmers improved significantly the 200 m freestyle performance over a season. However, a non-significant improvement was found on their energetic profile. Hence, one might speculate that performance improvement might be related to other performance determinants, such as, technical enhancement. Aerobic metabolism was the major contributor for Etot whereas anaerobic alactic was the second major contributor.
Barbosa, T.M., Bragada, J.A., Reis, V.M., Marinho, D.A., Carvalho, C., and Silva, A.J. (2010). Energetics and biomechanics as determining factors of swimming performance: updating the state of the art. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport / Sports Medicine Australia, 13(2), 262–269. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2009.01.003
Benelli, P., Ditroilo, M., Forte, R., De Vito, G., & Stocchi, V. (2007). Assessment of post-competition peak blood lactate in male and female master swimmers aged 40-79 years and its relationship with swimming performance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(6), 685–693. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-006-0334-2
Binzoni, T., Ferretti, G., Schenker, K., & Cerretelli, P. (1992). Phosphocreatine hydrolysis by 31P-NMR at the onset of constant-load exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 73(4), 1644–1649. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.19220.127.116.114
Capelli, C., Pendergast, D.R., & Termin, B. (1998). Energetics of swimming at maximal speeds in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 78(5), 385–393. https://doi.org/10.1007/s004210050435
Costa, M.J., Marinho, D.A., Reis, V.M., Silva, A.J., Marques, M.C., Bragada, J.A., & Barbosa, T.M. (2010). Tracking the performance of world-ranked swimmers. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 9(3), 411–417.
Costa, M.J., Bragada, J.A., Mejias, J.E., Louro, H., Marinho, D.A., Silva, A.J., and Barbosa, T.M. (2012b). Tracking the performance, energetics and biomechanics of international versus national level swimmers during a competitive season. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 112, 811–820. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-011-2037-6
Di Prampero, P.E., & Ferretti, G. (1999). The energetics of anaerobic muscle metabolism: a reappraisal of older and recent concepts. Respiration Physiology, 118(2-3), 103–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0034-5687(99)00083-3
Donato, A.J., Tench, K., Glueck, D.H., Seals, D.R., Eskurza, I., & Tanaka, H. (2003). Declines in physiological functional capacity with age: a longitudinal study in peak swimming performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(2), 764–769. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00438.2002
Eskurza, I., Donato, A.J., Moreau, K.L., Seals, D.R., & Tanaka, H. (2002). Changes in maximal aerobic capacity with age in endurance-trained women: 7-yr follow-up. Journal of Applied Physiology, 92(6), 2303–2308. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01124.2001
Faulkner, A.J., Larkin, L.M., Claflin, D.R., & Brooks, S.V. (2007). Age-related changes in the structure and function of skeletal muscles. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology, 34(11), 1091–1096. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1681.2007.04752.x
Figueiredo, P., Zamparo, P., Sousa, A., Vilas-Boas, J.P., & Fernandes, R.J. (2011). An energy balance of the 200 m front crawl race. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(5), 767–777. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1696-z
Gastin, P. B. (2001). Energy system interaction and relative contribution during maximal exercise. Sports Medicine, 31(10), 725–741. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200131100-00003
Laffite, L.P., Vilas-Boas, J.P., Demarle, A., Silva, J., Fernandes, R., & Billat, V.L. (2004). Changes in physiological and stroke parameters during a maximal 400-m free swimming test in elite swimmers. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 29(S1), S17–S31. https://doi.org/10.1139/h2004-055
Macaluso, A., & Vito, G. (2004). Muscle strength, power and adaptations to resistance training in older people. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 91(4), 450–472. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-003-0991-3
Pendergast, D.R., Capelli, C., Minetti, A.E., & Mollendorf, J. (2006). Biophysics in swimming. Revista Portuguesa de Ciências Do Desporto, 6(23), 185–189.
Reaburn, P., & Dascombe, B. (2009). Anaerobic performance in masters athletes. European Review of Aging and Physical Activity, 6(1), 39–53. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11556-008-0041-6
Sousa, A., Figueiredo, P., Zamparo, P., Vilas-Boas, J.P., & Fernandes, R.J. (2013). Anaerobic alactic energy assessment in middle distance swimming. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 113(8), 2153–2158. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-013-2646-3
Termin, B., & Pendergast, D.R. (2000). Training using the stroke frequency-velocity relationship to combine biomechanical and metabolic paradigms. The Journal of Swimming Research, 14, 9–17.
Toussaint, H.M., & Hollander, A.P. (1994). Energetics of competitive swimming. Implications for training programmes. Sports Medicine, 18(6), 384–405. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-199418060-00004
Weir, P.L., Kerr, T., Hodges, N.J., McKay, S. M., & Starkes, J. L. (2002). Master swimmers: How are they different from younger elite swimmers? An examination of practice and performance patterns. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 10(1), 41–63. https://doi.org/10.1123/japa.10.1.41
Zamparo, P., Capelli, C., & Pendergast, D. (2011). Energetics of swimming: a historical perspective. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 111(3), 367–378. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1433-7
Zamparo, P., Pendergast, D. R., Mollendorf, J., Termin, A., & Minetti, A. E. (2005). An energy balance of front crawl. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 94(1-2), 134–144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-004-1281-4
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Each author warrants that his or her submission to the Work is original and that he or she has full power to enter into this agreement. Neither this Work nor a similar work has been published elsewhere in any language nor shall be submitted for publication elsewhere while under consideration by JHSE. Each author also accepts that the JHSE will not be held legally responsible for any claims of compensation.
Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Please include at the end of the acknowledgements a declaration that the experiments comply with the current laws of the country in which they were performed. The editors reserve the right to reject manuscripts that do not comply with the abovementioned requirements. The author(s) will be held responsible for false statements or failure to fulfill the above-mentioned requirements.
This title is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).
You are free to share, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
NoDerivatives — If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified material.
No additional restrictions — You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
You do not have to comply with the license for elements of the material in the public domain or where your use is permitted by an applicable exception or limitation.
No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.
Transfer of Copyright
In consideration of JHSE’s publication of the Work, the authors hereby transfer, assign, and otherwise convey all copyright ownership worldwide, in all languages, and in all forms of media now or hereafter known, including electronic media such as CD-ROM, Internet, and Intranet, to JHSE. If JHSE should decide for any reason not to publish an author’s submission to the Work, JHSE shall give prompt notice of its decision to the corresponding author, this agreement shall terminate, and neither the author nor JHSE shall be under any further liability or obligation.
Each author certifies that he or she has no commercial associations (e.g., consultancies, stock ownership, equity interest, patent/licensing arrangements, etc.) that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article, except as disclosed on a separate attachment. All funding sources supporting the Work and all institutional or corporate affiliations of the authors are acknowledged in a footnote in the Work.
Each author certifies that his or her institution has approved the protocol for any investigation involving humans or animals and that all experimentation was conducted in conformity with ethical and humane principles of research.
Biomedical journals typically require authors and reviewers to declare if they have any competing interests with regard to their research.
JHSE require authors to agree to Copyright Notice as part of the submission process.