Journal of Human Sport and Exercise

Motor imagery, perspective taking and gender differences: a VVIQ2-based study

Pio Alfredo Di Tore, Gaetano Raiola, Salvatore Barba, Salvatore Pignato, Mario Lipoma



Scientific literature highlighted gender differences in spatial orientation. In particular, men and women differ in terms of the navigational processes they use in daily life. Scientific literature highlighted that women use analytical strategies while men  tend to use holistic strategies. Furthermore, studies exploring gender differences in self-reported dream perspectives reported that women dream mainly in first person and men mainly in third person. This work used Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 to verify if gender differences in perspective taking last also in motor imagery practice. The aim of VVIQ2 questionnaire is to determine the vividness of movement imagery. In the VVIQ2, the image can be obtained  watching oneself while performing the movement from an external point of view (External Visual Imagery), or from an internal point of view, as if you were looking out through your own eyes while performing the movement (Internal Visual Imagery). The Questionnaire  was administered to students of Sports Sciences Degree from University of Salerno.


visual imagery, gender differences, motor planning, cognitive and perceptual skills


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