The effect of task and ego orientation to athletic identity and anti social behavior of students and athletes
The present study examined the affect of task and ego orientation on athletic identity and anti social behavior of students and athletes. A total of 156 students (86 males and 70 females with a mean age of 16,5 years) and 150 athletes (90 males and 60 females with a mean age of 18,5 years) participated at the study. The study was conducted from December 2012 to February 2013 during a basketball school tournament at the premises of Anatolia College for students and during local championships for athletes. TEOSQ (The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire) by Nicholls (1989) was used for the assessment of goals, the A.I.M.S. (Athletic Identity Measurement Scale) by Brewer et al,(1993 ) for athletic identity and the questionnaire by M.Kavussanu (pro-social and antisocial behavior 2006) was used for antisocial behaviour. All questionnaires have been previously used for similar studies in Greece. Results showed that task and ego orientation as well as identity affect antisocial behavior. Differences among athletes and students were observed only on athletic identity, while regarding the two sexes boys showed higher scores on antisocial behavior and aggression in relation to girls.
Ames, C. (1992). Achievement goals, motivational climate and motivational processes. In G.C. Roberts (ed.), Motivation in Sport and Exercise, pp. 161–176, Champaign, IL: HumanKinetics.
Ames, C., & Ames, R. (1984b). Systems of student and teacher motivation: Toward a qualitative definition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 535-556. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.115
Brewer, B.W., Van Raalte, J., & Linder, D.E. (1993). Athletic identity: or Achilles heel Hercules'muscles? International Journal of Sport Psychology, 24, 237–254.
Veligeka, B., & Mylona, K. (2007). Goal orientation athletes track and field. Motor learning, 4(1). University of Athens.
Beller, J., & Stoll, S. (1995). Moral development of high school athletes. Journal of Pediatric Exercise, 7, 352-363. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.7.4.352
Bredemeier, B., & Shields, D. (1986). Moral growth among athletes and no athletes: A comparative analysis. Journal of Moral Education, 15, 212-220. https://doi.org/10.1080/0305724860150304
Bredemeier, B., & Shields, D. (1984a). Divergence in moral reasoning about sport and everyday life. Sociology of Sport Journal, 1, 348-357. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.1.4.348
Bredemeier, B., & Shields, D. (1984b). The utility of moral stage analysis in the investigation of athletic aggression. Sociology of Sport Journal,1, 138-149. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.1.2.138
Chasandra, M (2006). Moral maturity in physical education. Explorations in physical education & sport, 4(2), 211-224.
Deci, E.L. & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-2271-7
Diggelidis, N., Kotsaki, Z., & Papaioanou, A. (2005). Differences between pupils as internal and external motivation, goal orientations. Explorations in physical education & sports 3(1), 77-89.
Diggelidis, N., Kromidas, Ch. (2008). Differences between pupils as fair play and satisfaction in physical education. Explorations in physical education & sports. 6 (2), 149-161.
Duda, J., & Allison, M. (1989). The attribution theory of achievement motivation: Cross-cultural considerations. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 13, 37-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(89)90034-5
Duda, J. L., Nicholls, J. (1992). Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 290-299. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0618.104.22.1680
Duda, J., Maria, L. (1993). The relationship of task and ego orientation to performance-cognitive content, affect, and attributions. Bowling Journal of Sport Behavior,16(4), 209-220.
Duda, Hall, Howard. (2001). Achievement goal theory in sport: Recent extensions and future directions Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 605 – 611.
D'Arripe-Longueville, F., Corrion, K., Scoffier, S., Roussel, P., & Chalabaev, A. (2010). Sociocognitive selfregulatory mechanisms governing judgments of the acceptability and likelihood of sport cheating. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32, 595-618. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.32.5.595
Dunn, J. G. H., & Causgrove-Dunn, J. C. (1999). Goal orientations, perceptions of aggression,and sportspersonship in elite male ice hockey players. The Sport Psychologist, 13,183–200. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.13.2.183
Hall E.R. (1981). Moral development levels of athletes in sport-specific and general social situations. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation ,University, Denton.
Kavussanou, M. (1997). Moral functioning in sport: An achievement goal perspective. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Ubrana.
Kavussanu, M. (2006). Motivational predictors of prosocial and anti social behaviour in football. Journal of Sports Sciences, 24(6), 575-588. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500190825
Kent, M. (2007). Athletic Identity The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science & Medicine.
Kleiber & Roberts. (1981), Kleiber, D. A., & Roberts, G. C. (1981). The effects of sport experience in the development of social character: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3, 114- 122. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsp.3.2.114
Maehr M.L., Nicholls J.G., (1980). Culture and Achievement motivation: A second look. In: N Warren (Ed.), Studies in Cross Cultural Psychology, 221-267. New York: Academic Press.
Nicholls, J. G. (1984). Achievement motivation: Conceptions of ability, subjective experience, task choice, and performance. Psychological Review, 91(3), 328 – 346. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.91.3.328
Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Orlick, T. D. (1981). Positive socialization via cooperative games. Developmental Psychology, 17, 426-429. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1622.214.171.1246
Papaioanou A., Theodorakis I., Goudas, M. (1994) The motivation in physical education, Sports & social, 8, 69-77.
Papaioanou A., Theodorakis I., & Goudas M. (2003). For a better physical education. Thessaloniki. Publications Christodoulidi.
Proios M. (2012) Factor validity of the Athletic Ιdentity Measurement Scale in a Greek Sample. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10(4), 305-313. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2012.705518
Proios, M.(2005). Moral maturity and differences between two sexes in sports. Explorations in physical education and sports, 4(2), 225-236.
Proios, M., Athanailidis, I., & Zarotis, G. (2004). Relation motivation and fair play. Physical education, Sports, Health, 16-17, 117-125.
Reifsteck, E.J.M.S. (2011). The Relationship Between Athletic Identity and Physical Activity Levels After Retirement from Collegiate Sports. Directed by Dr. Diane L. Gill 75pp.
Shields, D.L.L., & Bredemeier, B.J.L. (1995). Character development and physical activity. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Shields, D. L., Bredemeier, B. L., LaVoi, N. M., & Power, F. C. (2005). The sport behavior of youth, parents, and coaches: The good, the bad, and the ugly. Journal of Research in Character Education, 3, 43-59.
Stephens, D. E., & Bredemeier, B. J. L. (1996). Moral atmosphere and judgments about aggression in girls' soccer: Relationships among moral and motivational variables. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 18, 158-173. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.18.2.158
Treasure, D.C., & Roberts G.C. (1998). Relationship Between Female Adolescents' Achievement Goal Orientations, Perceptions of the Motivational Climate, Beliefs about Success and Sources of Satisfaction in Basketball. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 29, 211-230.
Zahariadis, P. N.,Biddle,S J. H (2000) Goal Orientations and Participation Motives in Physical Education and Sport Their relationships in English schoolchildren UK:Athletic Insight The Online Journal of Sport Psychologie.