Promoting physical activity at the school playground: A quasi-experimental intervention study
In looking for new strategies to promote physical activity (PA), the purpose of this study was to determine whether providing equipment, playground markings, and a physical education (PE)-based intervention effectively increases PA levels during school recess. A total of 223 children (mean age = 7.10 years ± 0.6; 45.3% female) from three schools participated in this study in 2012. In the ﬁrst intervention school (G1; n = 75) six previous PE classes teaching games for recess were performed and playground markings and game equipment were provided. In the second intervention school (G2; n = 68) only playground markings and game equipment were provided. The third school served as the control group (GC; n = 80). PA was assessed with pedometers. The increase in mean steps after intervention in G2 was higher than the G1 and GC (P < 0.001). No differences between G1 and GC were observed at post-intervention (P = 0.05). The effects did not vary by gender or BMI. Providing game equipment and playground marks may increase children PA in recess. Nevertheless, additional PE-based intervention did not imply an improvement, and was not effective in increasing PA.
Beighle, A., Morgan, C. F., Le Masurier, G., & Pangrazi, R. P. (2006). Children's physical activity during recess and outside of school. J Sch Health, 76, 516-520. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2006.00151.x
Brink, L., Nigg, C., Lampe, S., Kingston, B., Mootz, A., & Van Vliet, W. (2010). Influence of schoolyard renovations on children's physical activity: The Learning Landscapes Program. Am J Public Health, 100, 1672-1678. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.178939
Bruce, T. (2011). Cultivating creativity: for babies, toddlers and young children. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Cole, T. J., Bellizzi, M. C., Flegal, K. M., & Dietz, W. H. (2000). Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ, 320, 1240-1243. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7244.1240
Dobbins, M., De Corby, K., Robeson, P., Husson, H., & Tirilis, D. (2009). School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6-18. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, (1). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007651
Efrat, M. W. (2013). Exploring effective strategies for increasing the amount of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity children accumulate during recess: a quasi-experimental intervention study. J Sch Health, 83, 265–272. https://doi.org/10.1111/josh.12026
Hallal, P. C., Andersen, L. B., Bull, F. C., Guthold, R., Haskell, W., & Ekelund, U. (2012). Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet, 380, 247-257. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60646-1
Hannon, J. C., & Brown, B. B. (2008). Increasing preschoolers' physical activity intensities: an activity-friendly preschool playground intervention. Prev Med, 46, 532-536. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.01.006
Hardman, C. A., Horne, P. J., & Rowlands, A. V. (2009). Children's pedometer-determined physical activity during school-time and leisure-time. J Exerc Sci Fit, 7, 129–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1728-869X(09)60016-2
Howe, C. A., Freedson, P. S., Alhassan, S., Feldman, H. A., & Osganian, S. K. (2012). A recess intervention to promote moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Pediatr Obes, 7, 82-88. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2047-6310.2011.00007.x
Huberty, J. L., Beets, M. W., Beighle, A., & Welk, G. (2011). Environmental modifications to increase physical activity during recess: preliminary findings from ready for recess. J Phys Act Health, 8 (Suppl 2), S249-256. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.8.s2.s249
Huberty, J. L., Siahpush, M., Beighle, A., Fuhrmeister, E., Silva, P., & Welk, G. (2011). Ready for recess: a pilot study to increase physical activity in elementary school children. J Sch Health, 81, 251-257. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00591.x
Humbert, M. L., Chad, K. E., Bruner, M. W., Spink, K. S., Muhajarine, N., Anderson, K. D., … Gryba, C. R. (2008). Using a naturalistic ecological approach to examine the factors influencing youth physical activity across grades 7 to 12. Health Educ Behav, 35, 158-173. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198106287451
Ickes, M. J., Erwin, H., & Beighle, A. (2012). Systematic Review of recess interventions to increase physical activity. J Phys Act Health, 10, 910-926. https://doi.org/10.1123/jpah.10.6.910
Kahan, D. (2008). Recess, extracurricular activities, and active classroom: Means for increasing elementary school students' physical activity. JOPERD, 79(2), 26–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.2008.10598131
Kokkinos, P. (2012). Physical activity, health benefits, and mortality risk. ISRN Cardiol, 2012, 718789. https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/718789
Lee, I.-M., Shiroma, E. J., Lobelo, F., Puska, P., Blair, S. N., & Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2012). Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet, 380, 219-229. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9
Lonsdale, C., Rosenkranz, R. R., Peralta, L. R., Bennie, A., Fahey, P., & Lubans, D. R. (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis of interventions designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in school physical education lessons. Prev Med, 56, 152-161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.12.004
Lopes, L., Lopes, V., & Pereira, B. (2009). Physical activity levels in normal weight and overweight portuguese children: an intervention study during an elementary school recess. Int Electron J Health Educ, 12, 10.
López-Fernández, I., Pascual-Martos, C. A., & Alvarez_Carnero, E. (2013). Validation of a pedometer to measure physical activity during school recess. Journal of Sport and Health Research, 5, 167-178.
Loucaides, C. A., Jago, R., & Charalambous, I. (2009). Promoting physical activity during school break times: Piloting a simple, low cost intervention. Prev Med, 48, 332–334. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.02.005
Parrish, A.-M., Okely, A. D., Stanley, R. M., & Ridgers, N. D. (2013). The effect of school recess interventions on physical activity: a systematic review. Sports Med, 43, 287-299. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0024-2
Ramstetter, C. L., Murray, R., & Garner, A. S. (2010). The crucial role of recess in schools. J Sch Health, 80, 517-526. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2010.00537.x
Ridgers, N. D., Salmon, J., Parrish, A.-M., Stanley, R. M., & Okely, A. D. (2012). Physical activity during school recess: a systematic review. American journal of preventive medicine, 43, 320-328. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2012.05.019
Ridgers, N. D., Stratton, G., Fairclough, S. J., & Twisk, J. W. (2007). Children's physical activity levels during school recess: a quasi-experimental intervention study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 4, 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-4-19
Scruggs, P. W., Beveridge, S. K., & Watson, D. L. (2003). Increasing children's school time physical activity using structured fitness breaks. Pediatr Exerc Sci, 15, 156-169. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.15.2.156
Siahpush, M., Huberty, J. L., & Beighle, A. (2012). Does the effect of a school recess intervention on physical activity vary by gender or race? Results from the ready for recess pilot study. J Public Health Manag Pract, 18, 416-422. https://doi.org/10.1097/PHH.0b013e318226ca47
Sinclair, C. D., Stellino, M. B., & Partridge, J. A. (2008). Recess activities of the week (RAW): promoting free time physical activity to combat childhood obesity. Strategies, 21(5), 21-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/08924562.2008.10590788
Stanley, R. M., Boshoff, K., & Dollman, J. (2012). Voices in the playground: a qualitative exploration of the barriers and facilitators of lunchtime play. J Sci Med Sport, 15, 44-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2011.08.002
Stellino, M. B., & Sinclair, C. D. (2013). Psychological predictors of children's recess physical activity motivation and behavior. Res Q Exercise Sport, 84, 167-176. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2013.786159
Stratton, G., & Leonard, J. (2002). The effects of playground markings on the energy expenditure of 5-7-year-old school children. Pediatr Exerc Sci, 14, 170-180. https://doi.org/10.1123/pes.14.2.170
Tudor-Locke, C., Craig, C. L., Beets, M. W., Belton, S., Cardon, G. M., Duncan, S., & Blair, S. N. (2011). How many steps/day are enough? for children and adolescents. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 8, 78. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5868-8-78
Verstraete, S. J. M., Cardon, G. M., De Clercq, D. L. R., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. M. M. (2006). Increasing children's physical activity levels during recess periods in elementary schools: the effects of providing game equipment. Eur J Public Health, 16(4), 415-419. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckl008
Vincent, S. D., & Sidman, C. L. (2003). Determining measurement error in digital pedometers. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci, 7, 19-24. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327841MPEE0701_2
Willenberg, L. J., Ashbolt, R., Holland, D., Gibbs, L., MacDougall, C., Garrard, J., & Waters, E. (2010). Increasing school playground physical activity: A mixed methods study combining environmental measures and children's perspectives. J Sci Med Sport, 13, 210–216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2009.02.011
World Health Organization (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity for health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Human Sport and Exercise
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.